Home » About » Data Sources

Data Sources

References & further reading (use ctrl to jump to section)

The Hive

  • Marino, L., & Colvin, C. M. 2015. Thinking pigs: A comparative review of cognition, emotion, and personality in Sus domesticus. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 28, Article 23859
  • BBC Earth. 2014. Smart Pigs vs Kids | Extraordinary Animals. Available online at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mza1EQ6aLdg
  • Croney, C.C. 1999. Cognitive abilities of domestic pigs. Thesis in Animal Science, The Pennsylvania State University, College of Agricultural Sciences, 1–105.
  • Cerbulis, I.G. 1994. Cognitive abilities of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), Thesis in Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, 1–108.
  • Broom, D. 2010. Cognitive ability and awareness in domestic animals and decisions about obligations to animals. Applied Animal Behavior Science, 126, 1–11.
  • Forkman, B., Furuhaug, I.L., & Jensen, P. 1995. Personality, coping patterns, and aggression in piglets. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 45, 31–42.
  • Gosling, S. & John, O.P. 1999. Personality dimensions in nonhuman animals. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8, 69–75
  • Masson, JM, 2019. The Secret World of Farm Animals. Vintage. p.28-9
  • Friel M, Kunc HP, Griffin K, Asher L, Collins LM. 2016. Acoustic signalling reflects personality in a social mammal. Royal Society journal Open Science.
  • Reimert, I., Bolhuis, J. E., Kemp, B., & Rodenburg, T. B. (2014). Emotions on the loose: emotional contagion and the role of oxytocin in pigs. Animal Cognition.
  • Lo, T. 2018. Saving the bacon! Extraordinary moment pig tries to stop its friend from being slaughtered. Available at: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5259419/Pig-rescues-friend-thats-slaughtered.html
  • Imfeld-Mueller, S., Van Wezemaela, L., Stauffachera, M., Gygax, L., & Hillmann, E. 2011. Do pigs distinguish between situations of different emotional valences during anticipation? Applied Animal Behavior Science, 131.

Caliebe, A, Nebel, A., Makarewicz, C. et al. 2017. Insights into early pig domestication provided by ancient DNA analysis. Sci Rep 7.

Oliver W. and Leus K. 2008. Sus scrofa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/41775/10559847 [Accessed 31 May 2020]

Masson J. 2002. The Secret Life of the Pig: the Emotional World of Farm Animals. Random House.

Masson, JM, 2019. The Secret World of Farm Animals. Vintage. p.46

Marsan, Andrea; Mattioli, Stefano 2013. Il Cinghiale (in Italian). Il Piviere (collana Fauna selvatica. Biologia e gestione).pp. 83–86

Baskin, L.; Danell, K. (2003). Ecology of Ungulates: A Handbook of Species in North, Central, and South America, Eastern Europe and Northern and Central Asia. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 15–38.

Woodland Trust. 2020. Wild boar. Available online at: https://www.woodlandtrust.org.uk/trees-woods-and-wildlife/animals/mammals/wild-boar/ [Accessed 29th May 2020]

Forestry Commission, 2015. Feral wild boar in the Forest of Dean. 3 December 2015. Available online at: www.forestry.gov.uk/forestry/infd-9fyfc5 [Accessed 21 February 2016]

Forestry England. 2019. More information about wild boar. Available online at: https://www.forestryengland.uk/article/more-information-about-wild-boar

Legislation.gov.uk.2007. The Dangerous Wild Animals Act. Available online at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2007/2465/schedule/made

 Weforum.org. 2019. This is how many animals we eat each year. Available at: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/02/chart-of-the-day-this-is-how-many-animals-we-eat-each-year

Pork.ahdb.org.uk. 2019. UK pigs facts and figures. Available at: https://pork.ahdb.org.uk/media/277092/uk-pig-facts-and-figures_2506_190507_web.pdf

DEFRA. 2019. Results of the 2018 FSA Survey into Slaughter Methods in England and Wales. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/778588/slaughter-method-survey-2018.pdf

Hooker, L. 2018. Is it cruel to stun animals with carbon dioxide? Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-44709905

Viva.org.uk. 2020. THE SLAUGHTER OF FARMED ANIMALS IN THE UK. Available at: https://www.viva.org.uk/what-we-do/slaughter/slaughter-farmed-animals-uk#:~:text=Viva!,as%20they%20bleed%20to%20death.&text=Pigs%20are%20supposed%20to%20be,and%20then%20’bled%20out’. [Accessed 8th June 2020]

AHDB.org.uk. 2020 Pig meat trade. Available at: https://ahdb.org.uk/pork/pig-meat-trade [Accessed 31 May 2020]

Agricultural and Horticultural Development Board, 2019. ‘The UK cattle yearbook 2019.’ AHDB. July. Available at https://projectblue.blob.core.windows.net/media/Default/Imported%20Publication%20Docs/CattleYearbook2019_190718_WEB_FINAL.pdf [Accessed 9 April 2020].

Farm Animal Welfare Committee, 2019. ‘Opinion on the Welfare of Cattle kept for Beef Production.’ FAWC. February. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/777246/FAWC_Opinion_on_the_welfare_of_cattle_kept_for_beef_production.pdf [Accessed 9 June 2020].

British Cattle Movement Service, 2014. ‘Official Cattle Breeds and Codes.’ BCMS. 6 May. Available at https://www.gov.uk/guidance/official-cattle-breeds-and-codes [Accessed 9 June 2020].

National Farmers Union. ‘Great British Beef Week.’ NFU. Available at https://www.nfuonline.com/great-british-beef-week-sucklers-2/ [Accessed 9 June 2020].

Earley, B., 2011. ‘Beef Cattle and Veal Crates.’ In: Webster, J., ed. ‘Management and Welfare of Farm Animals.’ (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell), 120-177.

Agricultural and Horticultural Development Board, 2016. ‘More Cattle Approaching Slaughter Age On The Ground In October.’ AHDB. December. Available at  https://beefandlamb.ahdbdigital.org.uk/market-intelligence-news/cattle-approaching-slaughter-age-ground-october/ [Accessed 2 April 2020].

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 2003. ‘Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Livestock: Cattle.’ DEFRA. 23 April. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf [Accessed 9 June 2020].

Agricultural and Horticultural Development Board, 2013. ‘Better management of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD/Pneumonia).’ AHDB, May. Available at http://www.beefandlamb.ahdb.org.uk/wp/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/BRP-plus-BRD-Pneumonia-080316.pdf [Accessed 15 April 2020].

National Animal Disease Information Service (NADISa). ‘Out-Wintering of Cattle.’ NADIS. Available at https://nadis.org.uk/disease-a-z/cattle/out-wintering-of-cattle/ [Accessed 15 April 2020].

Levitt, T., 2018. ‘Dairy’s “dirty secret”: It’s still cheaper to kill male calves than to rear them.’ The Guardian. 26 March. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/mar/26/dairy-dirty-secret-its-still-cheaper-to-kill-male-calves-than-to-rear-them [Accessed 9 June 2020].

BBC, 2018. ‘Call for end to live calf exports from Scotland.’ BBC. 10 September. Available at https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-45412223 [Accessed 9 June 2020].

EFSA, 2012. ‘Scientific Opinion on the welfare of cattle kept for beef production and the welfare in intensive calf farming systems.’The EFSA Journal. 2669, 10 (5). Available at https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2669 [Accessed 10 June 2020].

The Dairy Site, 2010. ‘Veal Production In The UK.’ The Dairy Site. 18 May. Available at http://www.thedairysite.com/articles/2360/veal-production-in-the-uk/#:~:text=Veal%20in%20the%20UK%20is,beef%20production%20in%20the%20UK [Accessed 9 June 2020].

Wasley, A., Kroeker, H., 2018. ‘Revealed: industrial-scale beef farming comes to the UK.’ The Guardian. 29 May. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/may/29/revealed-industrial-scale-beef-farming-comes-to-the-uk [Accessed 15 April 2020].

Animal Welfare Act 2006. Available at https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2006/45/section/1 [Accessed 30 April 2020].

EFSA, 2009. ‘Scientific report on the effects of farming systems on dairy cow welfare and Disease.’ The EFSA Journal. 1143, 1-38. Available at https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1143r [Accessed 10 June 2020].

The Beef Site, 2011. ‘Lameness in Beef Cattle.’ The Beef Site. 17 September. Available at http://www.thebeefsite.com/articles/2869/lameness-in-beef-cattle/ [Accessed 9 June 2020].

McCahill, E., 2018. ‘“Mutant” Belgian Blue bull stuns with shockingly muscle-bound body.’ The Mirror. 1 December. Available at https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/world-news/picture-mutant-belgian-blue-bull-13673907 [Accessed 9 June 2020].

National Animal Disease Information Service (NADISb). ‘Disbudding Calves.’ NADIS. Available at https://nadis.org.uk/disease-a-z/cattle/disbudding-calves/ [Accessed 1 April 2020].

Mainau, E., Temple, D., Manteca, X., 2012. ‘Impact of Dehorning And Disbudding On The Well-Being of Calves.’ Farm Animal Welfare Education Centre. August. Available at https://www.fawec.org/media/com_lazypdf/pdf/Fact_sheet_FAWEC_2_en.pdf [Accessed 1 April 2020].

National Animal Disease Information Service NADISc). ‘Castration: Getting The Best Results For Farm And Calf.’ NADIS. Available at  https://nadis.org.uk/disease-a-z/cattle/castration-of-calves/ [Accessed 1 April 2020].

National Animal Disease Information Service (NADISd). ‘Calf Nutrition And Colostrum Management.’ NADIS. Available at https://nadis.org.uk/disease-a-z/cattle/calf-management/calf-nutrition-and-colostrum-management/ [Accessed 1 April 2020].

Agricultural and Horticultural Development Board, 2017. ‘Nutrition.’ AHDB. September. Available at  http://beefandlamb.ahdb.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Technical-weaning-methods.pdf [Accessed 1 April 2020].

Doward, J., 2020. ‘More Than 100,000 Badgers Slaughtered In Discredited Cull Policy.’ The Guardian. 28 March. Available at  https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/mar/28/more-than-100000-badgers-slaughtered-in-discredited-cull-policy [Accessed 1 April 2020].

National Animal Disease Information Service (NADISe). ‘Bovine TB.’ NADIS. Available at  https://nadis.org.uk/disease-a-z/cattle/bovine-tb/ [Accessed 1 April 2020].

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 2020. ‘Monthly Publications of Official Statistics On The Incidence And Prevalence Of Tuberculosis (TB) In Cattle In Great Britain – To End November 2019.’ DEFRA. Available at  https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/864890/bovinetb-statsnotice-monthly-12feb20.pdf [Accessed 1 April 2020].

National Animal Disease Information Service (NADISf). ‘Downer Cow.’ NADIS. Available at https://nadis.org.uk/disease-a-z/cattle/downer-cow/ [Accessed 1 April 2020].

National Animal Disease Information Service (NADISg). ‘Disease A-Z for Cattle.’ NADIS. Available at https://nadis.org.uk/disease-a-z/cattle/ [Accessed 2 April 2020].

Briggs, H., 2001. ‘Amazing Powers of Sheep.’ BBC, 7 November. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1641463.stm [Accessed 26 March 2020].

Graham, S., 2001. ‘Study Shows Sheep Have Keen Memory For Faces.’ Scientific American, 9 November. Available at https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/study-shows-sheep-have-ke/ [Accessed 26 March 2020].

Villalba, J., Provenza, F., Shaw, R., 2006. ‘Sheep Self-Medicate When Challenged With Illness-Inducing Foods, Animal Behaviour.’ Science Direct 71, (5), pp 1131-1139, May. Available at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0003347206000406 [Accessed 26 March 2020].

Marino, L., Merskin, D., 2019. ‘Animal Sentience, Intelligence, Complexity, and Individuality in Sheep.’ Animal Sentience. Available at https://animalstudiesrepository.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1374&context=animsent [Accessed 26 March 2020].

Sèbe, F., Aubin, T., Nowak, R., Sèbe, O., Perrin, G., Poindron, P., 2011. ‘How And When Do Lambs Recognize The Bleats Of Their Mothers?’ Bioacoustics 20, (3), pp 341-355, January. Available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254215171_How_and_when_do_lambs_recognize_the_bleats_of_their_mothers [Accessed 26 March 2020].

Marino, L., Merskin, D., 2019. ‘Animal Sentience, Intelligence, Complexity, and Individuality in Sheep.’ Animal Sentience. Available at https://animalstudiesrepository.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1374&context=animsent&fbclid=IwAR1z4YE04Ps9WST0M0DNj8QvURB1ETobJdIHKI06GS4TygR9yB7ukNdHCfA [Accessed 26 March 2020].

Kendrick, K., da Costa, A., Leigh, A., et al., 2001. ‘Sheep Don’t Forget A Face.’ Nature 414, pp 165-166, November. Available at https://www.nature.com/articles/35102669 [Accessed 3 April 2020].

University of Cambridge, 2015. ‘Counting On Sheep.’ 10 June. Available at https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/features/counting-on-sheep [Accessed 3 April 2020].

Constable, H., 2017. ‘Sheep Are Not Stupid, And They Are Not Helpless Either.’ BBC, 19 April. Available at http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20170418-sheep-are-not-stupid-and-they-are-not-helpless-either [Accessed 3 April 2020].

Bradford, A., 2015. ‘Facts About Sheep.’ Live Science, 11 November. Available at https://www.livescience.com/52755-sheep-facts.html [Accessed 26 March 2020].

National Geographic. ‘Bighorn Sheep.’ Available at https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/b/bighorn-sheep/?source=A-to-Z [Accessed 26 March 2020].

Raising Sheep. ‘What Do Sheep Eat?’ Available at http://www.raisingsheep.net/what-do-sheep-eat.html [Accessed 3 April 2020].

BBC, 2012. ‘“Oldest Sheep” In The World Dies On Lewis In Western Isles.’ BBC, 28 February. Available at https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-highlands-islands-17182541 [Accessed 3 April 2020].

Phillips, K., 2016. ‘Advice For Weaning Lambs To Help Reduce Stress.’ Farmers Weekly, 23 July. Available at https://www.fwi.co.uk/livestock/advice-weaning-lambs-help-reduce-stress [Accessed 3 April 2020].

Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board, 2019. ‘The UK Sheep Yearbook 2019.’ AHDB. Available at https://projectblue.blob.core.windows.net/media/Default/Imported%20Publication%20Docs/SheepYearbook2019_190718_WEB_FINAL.pdf [Accessed 7 May 2020].

Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs, 2020. ‘Total Income from Farming in the United Kingdom, first estimate for 2019.’ Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs, 7 May. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/883681/agricaccounts-tiffstatsnotice-07may20.pdf [Accessed 7 May 2020].

Sèbe, F., Aubin, T., Nowak, R., Sèbe, O., Perrin, G., Poindron, P., 2011. ‘How And When Do Lambs Recognize The Bleats Of Their Mothers?’ Bioacoustics 20, (3), pp 341-355, January. Available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254215171_How_and_when_do_lambs_recognize_the_bleats_of_their_mothers [Accessed 26 March 2020].

National Sheep Association. ‘The Sheep Farming Year.’ Available at https://www.nationalsheep.org.uk/uk-sheep-industry/sheep-in-the-uk/the-sheep-farming-year/ [Accessed 26 March 2020].

Farm Animal Welfare Council, 2008. ‘FAWC Report On The Implications Of Castration And Tail Docking For The Welfare Of Lambs.’ Farm Animal Welfare Council, June. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/325125/FAWC_report_on_the_implications_of_castration_and_tail_docking_for_the_welfare_of_lambs.pdf [Accessed 26 March 2020].

Balsom, A., 2020. ‘Tail Docking Lambs: Advice, Legislation And Methods Compared.’ Farmers Weekly, 13 January. Available at https://www.fwi.co.uk/livestock/husbandry/tail-docking-lambs-advice-legislation-and-methods-compared [Accessed 3 April 2020].

Mainau, E., Temple, D., Llonch, P., Manteca, X., 2017. ‘Welfare Implications Of Tail Docking And Castration In Sheep.’ Farm Animal Welfare Education Centre, April. Available at https://www.fawec.org/en/fact-sheets/51-sheep/247-castration-taildocking-sheep [Accessed 3 April 2020].

Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRAa). ‘Improving Lamb Survival.’ Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs. Available at http://adlib.everysite.co.uk/resources/000/107/984/lambsurvival.pdf [Accessed 9 April 2020].

Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board, 2020. ‘GB Deadweight Sheep Prices.’ AHDB. Updated Weekly. Available at https://ahdb.org.uk/lamb/gb-deadweight-sheep-prices [Accessed 7 May 2020].

 Countryside, 2020. ‘British Lambing Season.’ Countryside, 6 April. Available at https://www.countrysideonline.co.uk/food-and-farming/feeding-the-nation/livestock/british-lambing-season/ [Accessed 7 May 2020].

TEXEL Sheep Society. ‘Survey Of Age Of English Lambs At Slaughter.’ TEXEL Sheep Society. Available at https://texel.uk/survey-of-age-of-english-lambs-at-slaughter/ [Accessed 3 April 2020].

Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRAc). ‘Welfare Of Animals During Transport.’ Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs. Available at https://assurance.redtractor.org.uk/contentfiles/Farmers-5423.pdf [Accessed 3 April 2020].

Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs, 2013. ‘Caring For Sheep And Goats.’ Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs, 8 April. Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/code-of-recommendations-for-the-welfare-of-livestock-sheep/sheep-and-goats-welfare-recommendations [Accessed 3 April 2020].

National Animal Disease Information Service (NADISa). ‘Lameness Control In Sheep.’ NADIS. Available at https://nadis.org.uk/disease-a-z/sheep/lameness-control-in-sheep/ [Accessed 3 April 2020].

Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRAb). ‘Lameness in Sheep.’ Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs. Available at https://assurance.redtractor.org.uk/contentfiles/Farmers-5437.pdf [Accessed 6 April 2020].

Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs, 2019. ‘Results of the 2018 FSA Survey into Slaughter Methods in England and Wales.’ February. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/778588/slaughter-method-survey-2018.pdf [Accessed 9 April 2020].

Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs, 2015. ‘Red Meat Slaughterhouses: Restraining, Stunning, Killing Animals.’ 15 October. Available at https://www.gov.uk/guidance/red-meat-slaughterhouses-restraining-stunning-killing-animals#animal-stunning-and-killing [Accessed 9 April 2020].

Humane Slaughter Association. ‘Frequently Asked Questions.’ HSA. Available at https://www.hsa.org.uk/faqs/general#n8 [Accessed 7 May 2020].

Dalton, J., 2019. ‘Shoppers Unknowingly Buying No-stun Religious Meat in Supermarkets’. The Independent, 19 February. Available at https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/meat-animals-no-stun-halal-meat-supermarkets-religion-kosher-food-ban-standards-agency-a8786541.html [Accessed 25 March 2020].

Collias NE and Collias EC. 1967. A field study of the Red Jungle Fowl in north-central India. The Condor69(4):360-86.

Smith CL, Zielinski SL. 2014. Brainy Bird. Sci Am; 310(2):60-65.

Bradshaw RH. 1991. Discrimination of group members by laying hens Gallusdomesticus. Behav Process.143–151.

Bradshaw RH. 1992 Conspecific discrimination and social preference in the laying hen. Appl Anim Behav Sci.33:69–75.

D’Eath RB, Stone RJ.1999.Chickens use visual cues in social discrimination: an experiment with coloured lighting. Appl Anim Behav Sci. 62:233–242.

Bradshaw RH, Dawkins MS. Slides of conspecifics as representatives of real animals in laying hens (Gallus domesticus)Behav Process. 1993;28:165–172.

Schweitzer, MH, Asara JM, Freimark LM, Phillips M, Cantley L. 2007.Protein Sequences from Mastodon and Tyrannosaurus Rex Revealed by Mass Spectrometry. Science. Issue 5822, pp. 280-28.

Rogers LJ. 1995. The Development of Brain and Behaviour in the Chicken CAB International51-2.

Gentle, MJ. J Breward J. 1986. The bill tip organ of the chicken. Agricultural and Food Research Council’s Poultry Research Centre. 79-85

Freire R, Eastwood MA, Joyce M. 2011. Minor beak trimming in chickens leads to loss of mechanoreception and magnetoreception. J Anim Sci. 89(4): 1201-6.

Edgar JL, Lowe JC, Paul ES, Nicol CJ. 2011 Avian maternal response to chick distress, Royal Society, 3129-34.

Dawkins MS. 1995 How do hens view other hens—the use of lateral and binocular visual-fields in social recognition. Behaviour.132:591.

Ham AD, Osorio D. 2007 Colour preferences and colour vision in poultry chicks. Proc R Soc B.;274 .

Rugani R, Fontanari L, Simoni E, Regolin L, and Vallortigara G. 2009 Arithmetic in newborn chicks, Proc. R. Soc. B.2762451–2460.

Abeyesinghe SM, Nicol CJ, Hartnell SJ, Wathes CM. 2011. Can domestic fowl, Gallus gallusdomesticus, show self-control? Anim Behav. 2005;70:1–11.

Johnston ANB, Burne THJ, and Rose SPR. 1998. Observational learning in day-old chicks using a one-trial passive avoidance learning paradigm. Animal Behaviour56:1347-53.

Cozzutti C, Vallortigara G. Hemispheric memories for the content and position of food caches in the domestic chick. BehavNeurosci. 2001;115:305–313.

Gyger M, Marler P. Food calling in the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus: the role of external referents and deception. Anim Behav. 1988;36(2):358–365.

Statista.com. 2020. Number of chickens worldwide from 1990 to 2018. Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/263962/number-of-chickens-worldwide-since-1990/

Collias, Nicholas Joos, Martin.1953. The spectrographic analysis of sound signals of the domestic fowl. Behaviour, 5, 175–188.

Smith CL, Zielinski SL. 2014. Brainy Bird. Sci Am; 310(2):60-65.

Rogers LJ. 1995. The Development of Brain and Behaviour in the Chicken. CAB International.51-2.

Tschanz B.T. 1978 The emergence of the personal relationship between young bird and parents. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. Suppl. 4:51–100.

Wilson DR, Evans CS. 2008. Mating success increases alarm-calling effort in male fowl, Gallus gallus. Anim Behav. 76:2029–2035.

Kokolakis A, Smith CL, Evans CS. Aerial alarm calling by male fowl (Gallus gallus) reveals subtle new mechanisms of risk management. Anim Behaviour. Pages 1373-1380.

Gyger M, Marler P, and Pickert R. 1987. Semantics of an Avian Alarm Call System: The Male Domestic Fowl, Gallus domesticus. Behaviour 102(1/2):15-40.

Appleby MC, Mench JA, and Hughes BO. 2004. Poultry Behaviour and Welfare. CABI Publishingp.72.

Leonard ML and Horn AG. 1995. Crowing in relation to status in roosters. Animal Behaviour49:1283-90.

Evans CS, Evans L.1999 Chicken food calls are functionally referential. Anim Behaviour. 58:w307–319.

Pizzari T. 2003. Food, vigilance, and sperm: the role of male direct benefits in the evolution of female preference in a polygamous bird. Behav Ecol.14:593–601.

Nicol C. 2006. How animals learn from each other. Applied Animal Behaviour Science100:58-63.

Assets.publishing.service.gov.uk. 2019. Results of the 2018 FSA Survey into Slaughter Methods in England and Wales. Defra.Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/778588/slaughter-method-survey-2018.pdf [Accessed 17 April 2020].

British Veterinary Association. 2020. Non-Stun Slaughter | British Veterinary Association. Available at: www.bva.co.uk/take-action/our-policies/non-stun-slaughter/ [Accessed 17 April 2020].

Clarke, P. 2020. No alternatives to culling day old male chicks… yet. Available at: https://www.fwi.co.uk/livestock/poultry/layers/no-alternatives-to-culling-day-old-male-chicks-yet?name=no-alternatives-to-culling-day-old-male-chicks-yet&category_name=livestock%2Fpoultry%2Flayers. [Accessed 13 May 2020]

Hsa.org.uk. 2006. Gas Killing Of Chicks In Hatcheries. Available at: https://www.hsa.org.uk/downloads/technical-notes/TN14-gas-killing-of-chicks-in-hatcheries.pdf

BBC News 2020. France to ban culling of unwanted male chicks by end of 2021. Available at: www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-51301915 [Accessed 17 April 2020].

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), 2020. Agriculture in the United Kingdom. Defra. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/895106/AUK-2019-25jun20.pdf [Accessed 17 July 2020].

Levitt, T., 2020. ‘KFC admits a third of its chickens suffer painful inflammation’. The Guardian Thursday 30 July. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/jul/30/kfc-admits-a-third-of-its-chickens-suffer-painful-inflammation [Accessed 3 August 2020].

Perkins, C., 2015. ‘RSPCA bans chicken flock thinning to improve welfare and cut campylobacter’. The Grocer 23 November. Available at https://www.thegrocer.co.uk/meat/rspca-bans-chicken-flock-thinning-to-improve-welfare/528057.article [Accessed 17 August 2020].

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), 2019a. Guidance Broiler (meat) chickens: welfare recommendations. Defra. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/732227/code-of-practice-welfare-of-laying-hens-pullets.pdf [Accessed 17 July 2020].

Gov.uk, 1995. The Welfare of Animals (Slaughter or Killing) Regulations 1995. Available at https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/1995/731/contents/made [Accessed 25 August 2020].

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), 2019b. Results of the 2018 FSA Survey into Slaughter Methods in England and Wales. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/778588/slaughter-method-survey-2018.pdf [Accessed 17 July 2020].

1. DEFRA, 2019a. Agriculture in the United Kingdom 2018. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/848641/AUK_2018_09jul19a.pdf [Accessed 12 May 2020].

2. Clarke, P., 2015. How the UK’s largest goose producer rears its birds. 12 August. Farmers Weekly. Available at https://www.fwi.co.uk/livestock/poultry/poultry-business/revealed-uks-largest-goose-producer-rears-birds [Accessed 20 May 2020].

3. Dalton, J., 2019. ‘A life of misery’: Undercover filming shows ducks stuck on their backs and denied access to open water at Gressingham farms. The Independent. 17 December. Available at https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/duck-sainsbury-waitrose-tesco-asda-morrisons-cruelty-gressingham-foods-a9248956.html [Accessed 15 June 2020].

4. DEFRA, 2011a. Ducks (England): Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Livestock (PB0079). Available at http://adlib.everysite.co.uk/adlib/defra/content.aspx?id=000IL3890W.180G7LHF5MSJ8A [Accessed 20 May 2020].

5. DEFRA, 2019b. ‘Poultry: welfare recommendations.’ Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 5 July. Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/poultry-on-farm-welfare/poultry-welfare-recommendations [Accessed 25 November 2020].

6. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2020. ‘Goose.’ Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11 March. Available at https://www.britannica.com/animal/goose-bird [Accessed 15 January 2021].

7. DEFRA, 2011b. Management Bill trimming. Available at http://adlib.everysite.co.uk/adlib/defra/content.aspx?id=000IL3890W.180GBFNL3RKJB1 [Accesses 20 May 2020].

8. DEFRA, 2019c. Ducks (Mallard and Pekin): welfare recommendations. 5 July. Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/poultry-on-farm-welfare/ducks-mallard-and-pekin-welfare-recommendations [Accessed 20 May 2020].

9. RSPCA, 2020. Farming Ducks. Available at https://www.rspca.org.uk/adviceandwelfare/farm/ducks/farming [Accessed 8 June 2020].

10. Farmers Weekly, 2019. ‘What UK farmers can learn from German turkey beak trim ban’. Available at: https://www.fwi.co.uk/livestock/poultry/other-poultry/advice-on-managing-turkeys-without-beak-treatment [Accessed 20 April 2020].

11. Gustafsona, L., Cheng, H., Garnerc, J., Pajorc, E., Mencha, J., 2007). Effects of bill-trimming Muscovy ducks on behavior, body weight gain, and bill morphopathology. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. Available at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0168159106001031 [Accessed 20 May 2020].

12. Raud and Faudre, 1994. Welfare of ducks in intensive units. Revue Scientifique et Technique de l’Office International des Epizooties. Available at https://www.oie.int/doc/ged/D8875.PDF [Accessed 20 May 2020].

13. UFAW, 2011. Management and welfare of farm animals. Wiley-Blackwell.

14. Cherry Valley Farms Ltd, 2020. Products and Specifications. Available at https://www.cherryvalley.co.uk/enquiriesandspecifications [Accessed 26 May 2020].

15. King, E., 2017. Infectious diseases affecting UK commercial duck species. 6 March. Available at https://www.vettimes.co.uk/app/uploads/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced-cache/1/infectious-diseases-affecting-uk-commercial-duck-species.pdf [Accessed 27 May 2020].

16. Palya, V., 2011. Major viral disease of waterfowl and their control. International Poultry Production, 19(4), pp.21-26. Available at http://www.bvpa.org.uk/pdfs/palya1011.pdf [Accessed 27 May 2020].

17. Lin, M., Chang, S., Lin, T., Cheng, Y., 2015. Factors Affecting the Incidence of Angel Wing in White Roman Geese: Stocking Density and Genetic Selection. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. Available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282389133_Factors_Affecting_the_Incidence_of_Angel_Wing_in_White_Roman_Geese_Stocking_Density_and_Genetic_Selection [Accessed 27 May 2020].

18. BBC, 2018. Foie gras imports may be banned after Brexit, UK minister suggests. 14 June. Available at https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-44480768 [Accessed 13 May 2020].

19. Skippon, 2013. The animal health and welfare consequences of foie gras production. The Candadian Veterinary Journal. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3595949/ [Accessed 13 May 2020].

20. Euro Foie Gras, 2019. The production. Available at https://www.eurofoiegras.com/en/the-production/ [Accessed 13 May 2020].

Jewellery

Tree of LIfe

 Theobald, Douglas L. (2010). “A formal test of the theory of universal common ancestry”. Nature. 465 (7295): 219–222. doi:10.1038/nature09014. PMID 20463738. Unknown parameter |name= ignored (help)

Elephants

Avocado

Rainbow

Spiders

Giraffe

Muller, Z.; Bercovitch, F.; Brand, R.; Brown, D.; Brown, M.; Bolger, D.; Carter, K.; Deacon, F.; Doherty, J. B.; Fennessy, J.; Fennessy, S.; Hussein, A.A.; Lee, D.; Marais, A.; Strauss, M.; Tutchings, A. & Wube, T. (2016). “Giraffa camelopardalis”. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T9194A136266699. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T9194A136266699.en.

 “Giraffe”. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 1 November 2011.

 Peust, C. (2009). “Some Cushitic Etymologies”. In Dolgopolʹskiĭ, A.; Takács, G.; Jungraithmayr, H. (eds.). Semito-Hamitic Festschrift for A.B. Dolgopolsky and H. Jungraithmayr. Reimer. pp. 257–60. ISBN 978-3-496-02810-9.

 Kingdon, J. (1997). The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press. pp. 339–44. ISBN 978-0-12-408355-4.

 Őrsi, Tibor (2006). French Linguistic Influence in the Cotton Version of Mandeville’s Travels. Tinta Könyvkiadó. p. 113. ISBN 9789637094545.

 “Definition of CAMELOPARD”. m-w.com. Encyclopædia Britannica: Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 3 September 2014.

 “Definition of camelopard”. Dictionary of Medieval Terms and Phrases. Retrieved 3 September 2014.

 Dagg, A. I. (1971). “Giraffa camelopardalis” (PDF). Mammalian Species. 5 (5): 1–8. doi:10.2307/3503830. JSTOR 3503830.

 “camelopardalis”. A Latin Dictionary, Perseus Digital Library. Retrieved 23 November 2011.

 Hassanin, A.; Douzery, E. J. P. (2003). “Molecular and morphological phylogenies of Ruminantia and the alternative position of the Moschidae”. Systematic Biology. 52 (2): 206–28. doi:10.1080/10635150390192726. PMID 12746147.

 Mitchell, G.; Skinner, J. D. (2003). “On the origin, evolution and phylogeny of giraffes Giraffa camelopardalis”. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa. 58 (1): 51–73. doi:10.1080/00359190309519935. S2CID 6522531.

 Danowitz, M.; Vasilyev, A.; Kortlandt, V.; Solounias, V. (2015). “Fossil evidence and stages of elongation of the Giraffa camelopardalis neck”. Royal Society Open Science. 2 (10): 150393. Bibcode:2015RSOS….250393D. doi:10.1098/rsos.150393. PMC 4632521. PMID 26587249.

 Danowitz, M.; Domalski, R.; Solounias, N. (2015). “The cervical anatomy of Samotherium, an intermediate-necked giraffid”. Royal Society Open Science. 2 (11): 150521. Bibcode:2015RSOS….250521D. doi:10.1098/rsos.150521. PMC 4680625. PMID 26716010.

 “Giraffa (giraffe)”. The Paleobiology Database. Retrieved 13 September 2016.

 Simmons, R. E.; Scheepers, L. (1996). “Winning by a Neck: Sexual Selection in the Evolution of Giraffe” (PDF). The American Naturalist. 148 (5): 771–86. doi:10.1086/285955. S2CID 84406669. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 August 2004.

 Janis, Christine M. (1 January 1993). “Tertiary Mammal Evolution in the Context of Changing Climates, Vegetation, and Tectonic Events”. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 24: 467–500. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.24.1.467. JSTOR 2097187.

 Ramstein, Gilles; Fluteau, Frédéric; Besse, Jean; Joussaume, Sylvie (24 April 1997). “Effect of orogeny, plate motion and land–sea distribution on Eurasian climate change over the past 30 million years”. Nature. 386 (6627): 788–795. Bibcode:1997Natur.386..788R. doi:10.1038/386788a0. S2CID 4335003.

 Badlangana, L. N.; Adams, J. W.; Manger, P. R. (2009). “The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) cervical vertebral column: A heuristic example in understanding evolutionary processes?”. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 155 (3): 736–57. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2008.00458.x.

 Agaba, M.; Ishengoma, E.; Miller, W. C.; McGrath, B. C.; Hudson, C. N.; Bedoya, R. O. C.; Ratan, A.; Burhans, R.; Chikhi, R.; Medvedev, P.; Praul C. A.; Wu-Cavener, L.; Wood, B.; Robertson, H.; Penfold, L.; Cavener, D. R. (2016). “Giraffe genome sequence reveals clues to its unique morphology and physiology”. Nature Communications. 7: 11519. Bibcode:2016NatCo…711519A. doi:10.1038/ncomms11519. PMC 4873664. PMID 27187213.

 Brown, D. M.; Brenneman R. A.; Koepfli, K.-P.; Pollinger, J. P.; Milá, B.; Georgiadis, N. J.; Louis Jr., E. E.; Grether, G. F.; Jacobs, D. K.; Wayne R. K. (2007). “Extensive population genetic structure in the giraffe”. BMC Biology. 5 (1): 57. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-5-57. PMC 2254591. PMID 18154651.

 Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema Naturæ.

 Muller, Zoe; et al. (2016). “Giraffa camelopardalis (Giraffe)”. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2017.

 Gippoliti, S. (2018). “Impacts of taxonomic inertia for the conservation of African ungulate diversity: an overview”. Biological Reviews. 93 (1): 115–130. doi:10.1111/brv.12335. PMID 28429851. S2CID 5189968.

 Russell, Seymour (2001). Patterns of subspecies diversity in the giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis (L. 1758) : comparison of systematic methods and their implications for conservation policy. PHD Thesis, University of Kent at Canterbury (PhD). University of Kent at Canterbury.

 Groves, Colin; Grubb, Peter (1 November 2011). Ungulate Taxonomy. JHU Press. ISBN 9781421400938.

 Fennessy, Julian; Bidon, Tobias; Reuss, Friederike; Kumar, Vikas; Elkan, Paul; Nilsson, Maria A.; Vamberger, Melita; Fritz, Uwe; Janke, Axel (2016). “Multi-locus Analyses reveal four giraffe species instead of one”. Current Biology. 26 (18): 2543–2549. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.07.036. PMID 27618261. S2CID 3991170.

 Bercovitch, Fred B.; Berry, Philip S.M.; Dagg, Anne; Deacon, Francois; Doherty, John B.; Lee, Derek E.; Mineur, Frédéric; Muller, Zoe; Ogden, Rob; Seymour, Russell; Shorrocks, Bryan; Tutchings, Andy (2017). “How many species of giraffe are there?”. Current Biology. 27 (4): R136–R137. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.12.039. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 28222287. S2CID 3356310.

 Petzold, Alice; Hassanin, Alexandre (13 February 2020). “A comparative approach for species delimitation based on multiple methods of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis: A case study of the genus Giraffa (Mammalia, Cetartiodactyla)”. PLOS ONE. 15 (2): e0217956. Bibcode:2020PLoSO..1517956P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0217956. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 7018015. PMID 32053589.

 Coimbra, Raphael T.F.; Winter, Sven; Kumar, Vikas; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Gooley, Rebecca M.; Dobrynin, Pavel; Fennessy, Julian; Janke, Axel (2021). “Whole-genome analysis of giraffe supports four distinct species”. Current Biology. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2021.04.033. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 33957077.

 Swainson 1835. Camelopardalis antiquorum. Bagger el Homer, Kordofan, about 10° N, 28° E (as fixed by Harper, 1940)

 Hassanin, A.; Ropiquet, A.; Gourmand, B.-L.; Chardonnet, B.; Rigoulet, J. (2007). “Mitochondrial DNA variability in Giraffa camelopardalis: consequences for taxonomy, phylogeography and conservation of giraffes in West and central Africa”. Comptes Rendus Biologies. 330 (3): 173–83. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2007.02.008. PMID 17434121.

 Seymour, R. (2002) The taxonomic status of the giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis (L. 1758), PH.D Thesis

 “Giraffa”. ISIS. 2010. Archived from the original on 6 July 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2010.

 “Giraffe – The Facts: Current giraffe status?”. Giraffe Conservation Foundation. Archived from the original on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2010.

 “Exhibits”. Al Ain Zoo. 25 February 2003. Archived from the original on 29 November 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.

 “Nubian giraffe born in Al Ain zoo”. UAE Interact. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2010.

 Fennessy, S.; Fennessy, J.; Muller, Z.; Brown, M. & Marais, A. (2018). “Giraffa camelopardalis ssp. rothschildi”. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018. Retrieved 25 August 2019.

 Fennessy, J.; Marais, A.; Tutchings, A. (2018). “Giraffa camelopardalis ssp. peralta”. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T136913A51140803.

 Thomas 1908. Giraffa camelopardalis peralta Lokojya, Niger– Benue junction, Nigeria.

 Kingdon, J. (1988). East African Mammals: An Atlas of Evolution in Africa, Volume 3, Part B: Large Mammals. University of Chicago Press. pp. 313–37. ISBN 978-0-226-43722-4.

 Winton, W. E. de (1 November 1899). “XXXVIII.—On mammals collected by Lieut.-Colonel W. Giffard in the northern territory of the Gold Coast”. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 4 (23): 353–359. doi:10.1080/00222939908678212. ISSN 0374-5481.

 Brenneman, R. A.; Louis, E. E. Jr; Fennessy, J. (2009). “Genetic structure of two populations of the Namibian giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis”. African Journal of Ecology. 47 (4): 720–28. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.2009.01078.x.

 Rookmaaker, L. C. (1 June 1989). The Zoological Exploration of Southern Africa 1650–1790. CRC Press. ISBN 9789061918677.

 Matschie 1898 Giraffa tippelskirchi. Lake Eyasi, NW Tanzania.

 Estes, R. (1992). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates. University of California Press. pp. 202–07. ISBN 978-0-520-08085-0.

 Pellow, R. A. (2001). “Giraffe and Okapi”. In MacDonald, D. (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Mammals (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 520–27. ISBN 978-0-7607-1969-5.

 Nowak, R.M. (1999). Giraffe Pages 1086–1089 in Walker’s Mammals of the World. Volume 1. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA and London, UK.

 Maisano, Sarah. “Giraffa camelopardalis giraffe”. Animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu.

 Owen-Smith, R.N. 1988. Megaherbivores: The Influence of Very Large Body Size on Ecology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 Dagg, A.I. and J. B. Foster (1976/1982): The Giraffe. Its Biology, Behavior, and Ecology. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida (Reprint 1982 with updated supplementary material.)

 Skinner, J. D.; Smithers, R. H. M. (1990). The mammals of the southern African subregion. University of Pretoria. pp. 616–20. ISBN 978-0-521-84418-5.

 Swaby, S. (2010). “Giraffe”. In Harris, T. (ed.). Mammal Anatomy: An Illustrated Guide. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 64–84. ISBN 978-0-7614-7882-9.

 Williams, E. (2011). Giraffe. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-764-0.

 Prothero, D. R.; Schoch, R. M. (2003). Horns, Tusks, and Flippers: The Evolution of Hoofed Mammals. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 67–72. ISBN 978-0-8018-7135-1.

 Lee, Derek E.; Cavener, Douglas R.; Bond, Monica L. (2 October 2018). “Seeing spots: quantifying mother-offspring similarity and assessing fitness consequences of coat pattern traits in a wild population of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis)”. PeerJ. 6: e5690. doi:10.7717/peerj.5690. ISSN 2167-8359. PMC 6173159. PMID 30310743.

 Mitchell, G.; Skinner, J.D. (2004). “Giraffe thermoregulation: a review”. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa. 59 (2): 49–57. doi:10.1080/00359190409519170. ISSN 0035-919X. S2CID 87321176.

 Langley, Liz (4 March 2017). “Do Zebras Have Stripes On Their Skin?”. National Geographic. Retrieved 2 June 2020.

 Wood, W. F.; Weldon, P. J. (2002). “The scent of the reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata)”. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 30 (10): 913–17. doi:10.1016/S0305-1978(02)00037-6.

 Aridi, Rasha. “Scientists Report First Instances of Dwarf Giraffes”. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 10 January 2021.

 Reuters (9 January 2021). “Scientists surprised to discover two dwarf giraffes in Namibia, Uganda”. The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 10 January 2021.

 Simmons, R. E.; Altwegg, R. (2010). “Necks-for-sex or competing browsers? A critique of ideas on the evolution of giraffe”. Journal of Zoology. 282 (1): 6–12. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2010.00711.x.

 MacClintock, D.; Mochi, U. (1973). A natural history of giraffes. Scribner. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-684-13239-6.

 Wood, C. (7 March 2014). “Groovy giraffes…distinct bone structures keep these animals upright”. Society for Experimental Biology. Retrieved 7 May 2014.

 Garland, T; Janis, C. M. (1993). “Does metatarsal/femur ratio predict maximal running speed in cursorial mammals?” (PDF). Journal of Zoology. 229 (1): 133–51. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1993.tb02626.x.

 Rafferty, John. P (2011). Grazers (Britannica Guide to Predators and Prey). Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-61530-336-6.

 Tobler, I.; Schwierin, B. (1996). “Behavioural sleep in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in a zoological garden”. Journal of Sleep Research. 5 (1): 21–32. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2869.1996.00010.x. PMID 8795798. S2CID 34605791.

 Henderson, D. M.; Naish, D. (2010). “Predicting the buoyancy, equilibrium and potential swimming ability of giraffes by computational analysis”. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 265 (2): 151–59. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2010.04.007. PMID 20385144.

 Naish, D. (January 2011). “Will it Float?”. Scientific American. 304 (1): 22. Bibcode:2011SciAm.304a..22N. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0111-22. ISSN 0036-8733.

 Taylor, M. P.; Wedel, M. J. (2013). “Why sauropods had long necks; and why giraffes have short necks”. PeerJ. 1: e36. doi:10.7717/peerj.36. PMC 3628838. PMID 23638372.

 Van Sittert, S. J.; Skinner, J. D.; Mitchell, G. (2010). “From fetus to adult – An allometric analysis of the giraffe vertebral column”. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution. 314B (6): 469–79. doi:10.1002/jez.b.21353. PMID 20700891.

 Solounias, N. (1999). “The remarkable anatomy of the giraffe’s neck” (PDF). Journal of Zoology. 247 (2): 257–68. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1999.tb00989.x.

 du Toit, J. T. (1990). “Feeding-height stratification among African browsing ruminants” (PDF). African Journal of Ecology. 28 (1): 55–62. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.1990.tb01136.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 November 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.

 Cameron, E. Z.; du Toit, J. T. (2007). “Winning by a Neck: Tall Giraffes Avoid Competing with Shorter Browsers”. American Naturalist. 169 (1): 130–35. doi:10.1086/509940. PMID 17206591. S2CID 52838493.

 Woolnough, A. P.; du Toit, J. T. (2001). “Vertical zonation of browse quality in tree canopies exposed to a size-structured guild of African browsing ungulates” (PDF). Oecologia. 129 (1): 585–90. Bibcode:2001Oecol.129..585W. doi:10.1007/s004420100771. PMID 24577699. S2CID 18821024. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 November 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2012.

 Young, T. P.; Isbell, L. A. (1991). “Sex differences in giraffe feeding ecology: energetic and social constraints” (PDF). Ethology. 87 (1–2): 79–89. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1991.tb01190.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 May 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2012.

 Mitchell, G.; van Sittert, S.; Skinner, J. D. (2010). “The demography of giraffe deaths in a drought”. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa. 65 (3): 165–68. doi:10.1080/0035919X.2010.509153. hdl:2263/18957. S2CID 83652889.

 Mitchell, G.; van Sittert, S. J.; Skinner, J. D. (2009). “Sexual selection is not the origin of long necks in giraffes”. Journal of Zoology. 278 (4): 281–86. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2009.00573.x.

 Brownlee, A. (1963). “Evolution of the Giraffe”. Nature. 200 (4910): 1022. Bibcode:1963Natur.200.1022B. doi:10.1038/2001022a0. S2CID 4145785.

 Williams, Edgar M. (2016). “Giraffe Stature and Neck Elongation: Vigilance as an Evolutionary Mechanism”. Biology. 5 (3): 35. doi:10.3390/biology5030035. PMC 5037354. PMID 27626454.

 Wedel, M. J. (2012). “A monument of inefficiency: the presumed course of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in sauropod dinosaurs” (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 57 (2): 251–56. doi:10.4202/app.2011.0019. S2CID 43447891.

 Harrison, D. F. N. (1995). The Anatomy and Physiology of the Mammalian Larynx. Cambridge University Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-521-45321-9.

 Skinner, J. D.; Mitchell, G. (2011). “Lung volumes in giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis” (PDF). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 158 (1): 72–78. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2010.09.003. hdl:2263/16472. PMID 20837156.

 Mitchell, G.; Skinner, J. D. (1993). “How giraffe adapt to their extraordinary shape”. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa. 48 (2): 207–18. doi:10.1080/00359199309520271.

 Mitchell, G.; van Sittert, S. J.; Skinner, J. D. (2009). “The structure and function of giraffe jugular vein valves” (PDF). South African Journal of Wildlife Research. 39 (2): 175–80. doi:10.3957/056.039.0210. hdl:2263/13994. S2CID 55201969.

 Pérez, W.; Lima, M.; Clauss, M. (2009). “Gross anatomy of the intestine in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)” (PDF). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia. 38 (6): 432–35. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0264.2009.00965.x. PMID 19681830. S2CID 28390695.

 Cave, A. J. E. (1950). “On the liver and gall-bladder of the Giraffe”. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 120 (2): 381–93. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1950.tb00956.x.

 Oldham-Ott, Carla K.; Gilloteaux, Jacques (1997). “Comparative morphology of the gallbladder and biliary tract in vertebrates: variation in structure, homology in function and gallstones”. Microscopy Research and Technique. 38 (6): 571–79. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0029(19970915)38:6<571::AID-JEMT3>3.0.CO;2-I. PMID 9330347.

 Fennessy, J. (2004). Ecology of desert-dwelling giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis in northwestern Namibia (PhD thesis). University of Sydney.

 Bond, Monica L.; Lee, Derek E.; Ozgul, Arpat; König, Barbara (27 August 2019). “Fission–fusion dynamics of a megaherbivore are driven by ecological, anthropogenic, temporal, and social factors”. Oecologia. 191 (2): 335–347. Bibcode:2019Oecol.191..335B. doi:10.1007/s00442-019-04485-y. ISSN 1432-1939. PMID 31451928. S2CID 201732871.

 van der Jeugd, H. P.; Prins, H. H. T. (2000). “Movements and group structure of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in Lake Manyara National Park, Tanzania” (PDF). Journal of Zoology. 251 (1): 15–21. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2000.tb00588.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 November 2013.

 Pratt D. M.; Anderson V. H. (1985). “Giraffe social behavior”. Journal of Natural History. 19 (4): 771–81. doi:10.1080/00222938500770471.

 Bond, Monica L.; König, Barbara; Lee, Derek E.; Ozgul, Arpat; Farine, Damien R. (2020). “Proximity to humans affects local social structure in a giraffe metapopulation”. Journal of Animal Ecology. 90 (1): 212–221. doi:10.1111/1365-2656.13247. ISSN 1365-2656. PMID 32515083.

 Bercovitch, F. B.; Berry, P. S. M. (2013). “Herd composition, kinship and fission–fusion social dynamics among wild giraffe”. African Journal of Ecology. 51 (2): 206–216. doi:10.1111/aje.12024.

 Carter, K. D.; Seddon, J. M.; Frèreb, C. H.; Carter, J. K. (2013). “Fission–fusion dynamics in wild giraffes may be driven by kinship, spatial overlap and individual social preferences”. Animal Behaviour. 85 (2): 385–394. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2012.11.011. S2CID 53176817.

 VanderWaal, K. L.; Wang, H.; McCowan, B.; Fushing, H.; Isbell, L. A. (2014). “Multilevel social organization and space use in reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)”. Behavioral Ecology. 25 (1): 17–26. doi:10.1093/beheco/art061.

 Bond, Monica L.; König, Barbara; Ozgul, Arpat; Farine, Damien R.; Lee, Derek E. (2021). “Socially Defined Subpopulations Reveal Demographic Variation in a Giraffe Metapopulation”. The Journal of Wildlife Management. n/a (n/a). doi:10.1002/jwmg.22044. ISSN 1937-2817.

 Leuthold, B. M. (1979). “Social organization and behaviour of giraffe in Tsavo East National Park”. African Journal of Ecology. 17 (1): 19–34. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.1979.tb00453.x.

 Knüsel, Mara; Lee, Derek; König, Barbara; Bond, Monica (March 2019). “Correlates of home range sizes of giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis” (PDF). Animal Behaviour. 149: 143–151. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2019.01.017. S2CID 72332291.

 Baotic, A.; Sicks, F.; Stoeger, A. S. (2015). “Nocturnal “humming” vocalizations: adding a piece to the puzzle of giraffe vocal communication”. BMC Research Notes. 8: 425. doi:10.1186/s13104-015-1394-3. PMC 4565008. PMID 26353836.

 del Castillo, Susan M.; Bashaw, Meredith J.; Patton, Marilyn L.; Rieches, Randy R.; Bercovitch, Fred B. (1 May 2005). “Fecal steroid analysis of female giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) reproductive condition and the impact of endocrine status on daily time budgets”. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 141 (3): 271–281. doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2005.01.011. ISSN 0016-6480. PMID 15804514.

 Bercovitch, Fred B.; Bashaw, Meredith J.; del Castillo, Susan M. (1 August 2006). “Sociosexual behavior, male mating tactics, and the reproductive cycle of giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis”. Hormones and Behavior. 50 (2): 314–321. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2006.04.004. ISSN 0018-506X. PMID 16765955. S2CID 45843281.

 Seeber, Peter A.; Duncan, Patrick; Fritz, Hervé; Ganswindt, André (23 October 2013). “Androgen changes and flexible rutting behaviour in male giraffes”. Biology Letters. 9 (5): 20130396. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2013.0396. PMC 3971675. PMID 23925833.

 Langman, V. A. (1977). “Cow-calf relationships in giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa)”. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie. 43 (3): 264–86. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1977.tb00074.x.

 Hall-Martin A. J.; Skinner J. D.; Hopkins B. J. (1978). “The development of the reproductive organs of the male giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis” (PDF). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. 52 (1): 1–7. doi:10.1530/jrf.0.0520001. PMID 621681.

 Coe, M. J. (1967). “‘Necking’ behavior in the giraffe”. Journal of Zoology. 151 (2): 313–21. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1967.tb02117.x.

 Bagemihl, B. (1999). Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. St. Martin’s Press. pp. 391–93. ISBN 978-0-312-19239-6.

 Lee, D. E.; Strauss, M. K. L (1 January 2016). Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-409548-9.09721-9. ISBN 9780124095489.

 Marealle, Wilfred N; Eggen, Grethe Stavik; Røskaft, Eivin (26 April 2020). “Faecal Glucocorticoids Metabolite Response in Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) in Relation to Protected Area Management Objectives in Tanzania”. East African Journal of Forestry and Agroforestry. 2 (1): 47–58. doi:10.37284/eajfa.2.1.142. ISSN 2707-4323.

 Müller, DW; Zerbe, P; Codron, D; Clauss, M; Hatt, JM (2011). “A long life among ruminants: giraffids and other special cases”. Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde. 153 (11): 515–519. doi:10.1024/0036-7281/a000263. PMID 22045457. S2CID 10687135.

 Hayward, Matt W.; Kerley, Graham (2005). “Prey preferences of the lion (Panthera leo)” (PDF). Journal of Zoology. 267 (3): 309–22. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.611.8271. doi:10.1017/S0952836905007508.

 Pienaar, U. de V. (1969). “Predator–prey relationships among the larger mammals of the Kruger National Park”. Koedoe. 12 (1). doi:10.4102/koedoe.v12i1.753.

 Owen-Smith, N.; Mills, M. G. (2008). “Predator-prey size relationships in an African large-mammal food web” (PDF). Journal of Animal Ecology. 77 (1): 173–83. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2007.01314.x. hdl:2263/9023. PMID 18177336.

 Bond, M. L.; Lee, D. E.; Farine, D. R.; Ozgul, A.; König, B. (10 February 2021). “Sociability increases survival of adult female giraffes”. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 288 (1944): 20202770. doi:10.1098/rspb.2020.2770. PMC 7893237. PMID 33563118.

 Lee, Derek E.; Bond, Monica L.; Kissui, Bernard M.; Kiwango, Yustina A.; Bolger, Douglas T. (11 May 2016). “Spatial variation in giraffe demography: a test of 2 paradigms”. Journal of Mammalogy. 97 (4): 1015–1025. doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyw086. ISSN 0022-2372. S2CID 87117946.

 Lee, Derek Edward; Bond, Monica Louise; Bolger, Douglas Thomas (1 January 2017). “Season of birth affects juvenile survival of giraffe”. Population Ecology. 59 (1): 45–54. doi:10.1007/s10144-017-0571-8. ISSN 1438-3896. S2CID 7611046.

 Lee, Derek E.; Kissui, Bernard M.; Kiwango, Yustina A.; Bond, Monica L. (2016). “Migratory herds of wildebeests and zebras indirectly affect calf survival of giraffes”. Ecology and Evolution. 6 (23): 8402–8411. doi:10.1002/ece3.2561. ISSN 2045-7758. PMC 5167056. PMID 28031792.

 Schmitt, M. H.; Stears, K.; Shrader, A. M. (2016). “Zebra reduce predation risk in mixed-species herds by eavesdropping on cues from giraffe”. Behavioral Ecology. 27 (4): 1073–1077. doi:10.1093/beheco/arw015.

 Lee, Derek E.; Bond, Monica L. (26 July 2016). “The Occurrence and Prevalence of Giraffe Skin Disease in Protected Areas of Northern Tanzania”. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 52 (3): 753–755. doi:10.7589/2015-09-247. PMID 27310168. S2CID 10736316.

 Bond, Monica L.; Strauss, Megan K. L.; Lee, Derek E. (16 August 2016). “Soil Correlates and Mortality from Giraffe Skin Disease in Tanzania”. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 52 (4): 953–958. doi:10.7589/2016-02-047. ISSN 0090-3558. PMID 27529292. S2CID 46776142.

 Muneza, Arthur B.; Montgomery, Robert A.; Fennessy, Julian T.; Dickman, Amy J.; Roloff, Gary J.; Macdonald, David W. (1 June 2016). “Regional variation of the manifestation, prevalence, and severity of giraffe skin disease: A review of an emerging disease in wild and captive giraffe populations”. Biological Conservation. 198: 145–156. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2016.04.014.

 “The Dabous Giraffe rock art petrograph”. The Bradshaw Foundation. Retrieved 6 November 2011.

 Shorrocks, B. (2016). The Giraffe: Biology, Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. Wiley. p. 3. ISBN 9781118587478.

 Ringmar, E. (2006). “Audience for a Giraffe: European Expansionism and the Quest for the Exotic” (PDF). Journal of World History. 17 (4): 353–97. doi:10.1353/jwh.2006.0060. JSTOR 20079397. S2CID 143808549.

 Walter, M.; Fournier, A.; Menevaux, D. (2001). Integrating shape and pattern in mammalian models in SIGGRAPH ’01 (PDF). Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques. pp. 317–26. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.10.7622. doi:10.1145/383259.383294. ISBN 978-1-58113-374-5. S2CID 13488215. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2011.

 Clegg, A. (1986). “Some Aspects of Tswana Cosmology”. Botswana Notes and Records. 18: 33–37. JSTOR 40979758.

 Matt McGrath (8 December 2016). “Giraffes facing ‘silent extinction’ as population plunges”. BBC News. Retrieved 8 December 2016.

 “New bird species and giraffe under threat – IUCN Red List”.

 Bolger, D.; Ogutu, J.; Strauss, M.; Lee, D.; Muneza, A.; Fennessy, J.; Brown, D. (2019). “Masai Giraffe”. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T88421036A88421121.en.

 Muneza, A.; Doherty, J. B.; Hussein Ali, A.; Fennessy, J.; Marais, A.; O’Connor, D.; Wube, T. (2018). “Reticulated Giraffe”. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T88420717A88420720.en.

 Wube, T.; Doherty, J. B.; Fennessy, J.; Marais, A. (2018). “Giraffa camelopardalis ssp. camelopardalis”. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T88420707A88420710.en.

 Lee, Derek E. (2018). “Evaluating conservation effectiveness in a Tanzanian community wildlife management area”. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 82 (8): 1767–1774. doi:10.1002/jwmg.21549. ISSN 1937-2817.

 Lee, Derek E; Bond, Monica L (26 February 2018). “Quantifying the ecological success of a community-based wildlife conservation area in Tanzania”. Journal of Mammalogy. 99 (2): 459–464. doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyy014. ISSN 0022-2372. PMC 5965405. PMID 29867255.

 Knappert, J (1987). East Africa: Kenya, Tanzania & Uganda. Vikas Publishing House. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-7069-2822-8.

 Charles Foley; Lara Foley; Alex Lobora; Daniela De Luca; Maurus Msuha; Tim R. B. Davenport; Sarah M. Durant (8 June 2014). A Field Guide to the Larger Mammals of Tanzania. Princeton University Press. pp. 179–. ISBN 978-1-4008-5280-2.

 “National Symbols: National Animal”. tanzania.go.tz. Tanzania Government Portal. Archived from the original on 18 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.

 “Chimpanzees among 33 breeds selected for special protection”. BBC. 28 October 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.

 “Good News for Giraffes at CITES CoP18 > Newsroom”. newsroom.wcs.org. Retrieved 16 November 2020.

 Muller, Zoe; Lee, Derek E.; Scheijen, Ciska P. J.; Strauss, Megan K. L.; Carter, Kerryn D.; Deacon, Francois (2020). “Giraffe translocations: A review and discussion of considerations”. African Journal of Ecology. 58 (2): 159–171. doi:10.1111/aje.12727. ISSN 1365-2028.

 Lee, De; Fienieg, E; Van Oosterhout, C; Muller, Z; Strauss, M; Carter, Kd; Scheijen, Cpj; Deacon, F (27 February 2020). “Giraffe translocation population viability analysis”. Endangered Species Research. 41: 245–252. doi:10.3354/esr01022. ISSN 1863-5407.

 Lee, Derek E.; Bond, Monica L. (9 June 2016). “Precision, accuracy, and costs of survey methods for giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis”. Journal of Mammalogy. 97 (3): 940–948. doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyw025. ISSN 0022-2372. S2CID 87384776.

 Rudgley, Richard The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Substances, pub. Abacus 1998 ISBN 0 349 11127 8 pps. 20–21.

 Ian Cunnison (1958). “Giraffe hunting among the Humr tribe”. Sudan Notes and Records. 39.

 Qiu, Jane (22 June 2017). “Surge in wildlife killings is wiping out giraffes”. Science. doi:10.1126/science.aan7000.

 Koeppel, Dan (January–February 2007). “Flight of the Pigeon”. Bicycling. Vol. 48 no. 1. Rodale. pp. 60–66. ISSN 0006-2073. Retrieved 28 January 2012.

Jump up to:

a b “Bicycling; A way of life; Faster in town than going by car, bus, tube or on foot”. The Economist. 20 April 2011.

Jump up to:

a b “Bicycles produced in the world”. Worldometers. Retrieved 2 January2012.

Jump up to:

a b Squatriglia, Chuck (23 May 2008). “Honda Sells Its 60 Millionth – Yes, Millionth – Super Cub”. Wired. Retrieved 31 October 2010.

Jump up to:

a b “That’s 2.5 billion cc!”. American Motorcyclist. Westerville, OH. May 2006. p. 24. ISSN 0277-9358. Retrieved 31 October 2010.

Jump up to:

a b “Toyota ponders recall of world’s best-selling car”. Australian Broadcasting Corporation News Online. 18 February 2010.

Jump up to:

a b Herlihy 2004, pp. 200–50.

Jump up to:

a b c d Herlihy 2004, pp. 266–71.

Jump up to:

a b c Herlihy 2004, p. 280.

^ Heitmann JA. The Automobile and American Life. McFarland, 2009, ISBN 0-7864-4013-9, pp. 11ff

Jump up to:

a b c “bicycle”. Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)

^ “bicycle (n.)”. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 10 February 2014.

^ “bike”. Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)

^ “pushbike”. Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)

^ “pedal cycle”. Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)

^ “cycle”. Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)

^ “Transport and Map Symbols” (PDF). unicode.org. Retrieved 10 February2014.

^ Scally, Derek (10 June 2017). “World’s first bicycle ride took place 200 years ago”. The Irish Times. Retrieved 29 March 2020.

^ “Frames & Materials”. Science of Cycling. Retrieved 29 March 2020.

^ Gliemann, Jennifer (21 March 2017). “200th anniversary: How the bicycle changed society”. Bike Citizens. Retrieved 29 March 2020.

^ Limebeer, D. J. N.; Massaro, Matteo (2018). Dynamics and Optimal Control of Road Vehicles. Oxford University Press. pp. 13–15. ISBN 9780192559814.

Jump up to:

a b “Baron von Drais’ Bicycle”. Canada Science and Technology Museum. Archived from the original on 29 December 2006. Retrieved 10 February2014.

^ Herlihy 2004, p. 26.

^ Herlihy 2004, pp. 66–67.

^ “Is dangerous cycling a problem?”. BBC News. 13 April 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2014.

^ Bulletin des lois de la République française (1873) 12th series, vol. 6, p. 648, patent no. 86,705: “Perfectionnements dans les roues de vélocipèdes”(Improvements in the wheels of bicycles), issued: 4 August 1869.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 50.

^ McGrory, David. A History of Coventry (Chichester: Phillimore, 2003), p. 221.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 47.

^ McGrory, p. 222.

^ “Cycle market: Moving into the fast lane”. The Independent. 26 February 2018.

^ The Golden Book of Cycling – William Hume, 1938. Archive maintained by ‘The Pedal Club’. Archived 3 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine

^ Dunlop, What sets Dunlop apart, History, 1889

^ Brown, Sheldon. “One-Speed Bicycle Coaster Brakes”. Archived from the original on 29 November 2010. Retrieved 1 December 2010. Coaster brakes were invented in the 1890s.

^ “On Your Bike…” BBC. 26 February 2018.

^ 24/7 Wall St. (26 January 2012). “The Best-Selling Cars of All Time”. Fox Business. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016.

^ Various (9 December 2006). “Like falling off”. New Scientist (2581): 93. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 27 January 2009.

^ Meijaard, J.P.; Papadopoulos, Jim M.; Ruina, Andy; Schwab, A.L. (2007). “Linearized dynamics equations for the balance and steer of a bicycle: a benchmark and review”. Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 463 (2084): 1955–82. Bibcode:2007RSPSA.463.1955M. doi:10.1098/rspa.2007.1857. S2CID 18309860.

^ Wilson, David Gordon; Jim Papadopoulos (2004). Bicycling Science(Third ed.). The MIT Press. pp. 270–72. ISBN 978-0-262-73154-6.

^ Fajans, Joel (July 1738). “Steering in bicycles and motorcycles” (PDF). American Journal of Physics. 68 (7): 654–59. Bibcode:2000AmJPh..68..654F. doi:10.1119/1.19504. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 September 2006. Retrieved 4 August 2006.

^ Cossalter, Vittore (2006). Motorcycle Dynamics (Second ed.). Lulu. pp. 241–342. ISBN 978-1-4303-0861-4.

^ S.S. Wilson, “Bicycle Technology”, Scientific American, March 1973

^ “Pedal power probe shows bicycles waste little energy”. Johns Hopkins Gazette. 30 August 1999.

^ Whitt, Frank R.; David G. Wilson (1982). Bicycling Science (Second ed.). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. pp. 277–300. ISBN 978-0-262-23111-4.

^ “AeroVelo Eta: bullet-shaped bike sets new human-powered speed record”. International Business Times. 21 September 2016. Retrieved 29 November2016.

^ “How Much Do Bicycles Pollute? Looking at the Carbon Dioxide Produced by Bicycles”. Kenkifer.com. 20 November 1999. Archived from the original on 15 November 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2011.

^ “History Loudly Tells Why The Recumbent Bike Is Popular Today”. Recumbent-bikes-truth-for-you.com. 1 April 1934. Archived from the originalon 2 August 2003. Retrieved 24 October 2011.

^ Lakkad; Patel (June 1981). “Mechanical properties of bamboo, a natural composite”. Fibre Science and Technology. 14 (4): 319–22. doi:10.1016/0015-0568(81)90023-3.

Jump up to:

a b Jen Lukenbill. “About My Planet: Bamboo Bikes”. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2013.

^ Teo Kermeliotis (31 May 2012). “Made in Africa: Bamboo bikes put Zambian business on right track”. CNN.

^ Bamboo bicycles made in Zambia (TV news). Tokyo: NHK World News in English. 14 January 2013. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013.

^ Patterson, J.M.; Jaggars, M.M.; Boyer, M.I. (2003). “Ulnar and median nerve palsy in long-distance cyclists. A prospective study”. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 31 (4): 585–89. doi:10.1177/03635465030310041801. PMID 12860549. S2CID 22497516.

^ Wade Wallace (1 October 2013). “Disc Brakes and Road Bikes: What does the Future Hold?”. cyclingtips.com.au. Retrieved 24 February 2014.

^ John Allan. “Disc Brakes”. sheldonbrown.com. Retrieved 24 February2014.

^ Brown, Sheldon. “Fixed Gear Conversions: Braking”. Archived from the original on 9 February 2009. Retrieved 11 February 2009.

^ https://www.bikeinn.com/bike/sks-spoiler-pro-50-60-mm/137484810/p

^ https://www.sks-germany.com/en/productcategories/mudguards/Mudguards (fenders)

Jump up to:

a b Bluejay, Michael. “Safety Accessories”. Bicycle Accessories. BicycleUniverse.info. Archived from the original on 8 October 2006. Retrieved 13 September 2006.

^ Kicinski-Mccoy, James (3 August 2015). “The Coolest Bike Accessories For Kids”. MOTHER. Retrieved 30 April 2020.

^ “The Essentials of Bike Clothing”. About Bicycling. About.com. Archived from the original on 26 August 2006. Retrieved 13 September 2006.

^ “Bicycle Advisor”. bicycleadvisor.com. Retrieved 16 December 2015.

^ The TC149 ISO bicycle committee, including the TC149/SC1 (“Cycles and major sub-assemblies”) subcommittee, has published the following standards:[citation needed]

  • ISO 4210 Cycles – Safety requirements for bicycles
  • ISO 6692 Cycles – Marking of cycle components
  • ISO 6695 Cycles – Pedal axle and crank assembly with square end fitting – Assembly dimensions
  • ISO 6696 Cycles – Screw threads used in bottom bracket assemblies
  • ISO 6697 Cycles – Hubs and freewheels – Assembly dimensions
  • ISO 6698 Cycles – Screw threads used to assemble freewheels on bicycle hubs
  • ISO 6699 Cycles – Stem and handlebar bend – Assembly dimensions
  • ISO 6701 Cycles – External dimensions of spoke nipples
  • ISO 6742 Cycles – Lighting and retro-reflective devices – Photometric and physical requirements
  • ISO 8090 Cycles – Terminology (same as BS 6102-4)
  • ISO 8098 Cycles – Safety requirements for bicycles for young children
  • ISO 8488 Cycles – Screw threads used to assemble head fittings on bicycle forks
  • ISO 8562 Cycles – Stem wedge angle
  • ISO 10230 Cycles – Splined hub and sprocket – Mating dimensions
  • ISO 11243 Cycles – Luggage carriers for bicycles – Concepts, classification and testing

Other ISO Technical Committees have published various cycle relevant standards, for example:

  • ISO 5775 Bicycle tire and rim designations
  • ISO 9633 Cycle chains – Characteristics and test methods

Published cycle standards from CEN TC333 include:

  • EN 14764 City and trekking bicycles – Safety requirements and test methods
  • EN 14765 Bicycles for young children – Safety requirements and test methods
  • EN 14766 Mountain-bicycles – Safety requirements and test methods
  • EN 14781 Racing bicycles – Safety requirements and test methods
  • EN 14782 Bicycles – Accessories for bicycles – Luggage carriers
  • EN 15496 Cycles – Requirements and test methods for cycle locks

Yet to be approved cycle standards from CEN TC333:

  • EN 15194 Cycles – Electrically power assisted cycles (EPAC bicycle)
  • EN 15532 Cycles – Terminology
  • 00333011 Cycles – Bicycles trailers – safety requirements and test methods

^ “Community Bicycle Organizations”. Bike Collective Network wiki. Retrieved 15 January 2013.

^ “Sheldon Brown: Flat tires”. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2008.

^ “BikeWebSite: Bicycle Glossary – Patch kit”. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 20 June 2008.

^ Winters, M; Brauer, M; Setton, EM; Teschke, K (2010). “Built environment influences on healthy transportation choices: bicycling versus driving”. J Urban Health. 87 (6): 969–93. doi:10.1007/s11524-010-9509-6. PMC 3005092. PMID 21174189.

^ Shaheen, Susan; Guzman, Stacey; Zhang, Hua (2010). “Bikesharing in Europe, the Americas, and Asia”. Transportation Research Record. 2143: 159–67. doi:10.3141/2143-20. S2CID 40770008.

^ Shaheen, Stacey; Stacey Guzman (2011). “Worldwide Bikesharing”. Access Magazine. Archived from the original on 26 March 2012.

^ Shaheen, Susan; Zhang, Hua; Martin, Elliot; Guzman, Stacey (2011). “China’s Hangzhou Public Bicycle” (PDF). Transportation Research Record. 2247: 33–41. doi:10.3141/2247-05. S2CID 111120290.

^ “Tax free bikes for work through the Government’s Green Transport Initiative”. Cyclescheme.[non-primary source needed]

^ Broekaert, Joel & Kist, Reinier (12 February 2010). “So many bikes, so little space”. NRC Handelsblad. Archived from the original on 13 February 2010. Retrieved 13 February 2010.

^ Damien Newton (16 October 2008). “Metro Making Room for Bikes on Their Trains”. LA.StreetsBlog.Org. Retrieved 12 February 2010.

^ Bernstein, Andrea, “Techies on the cutting edge… of bike commuting”, Marketplace, 22 February 2012. “Bernstein reports from the Transportation Nation project at WNYC”. Retrieved 22 February 2012.

^ “In Almost Every European Country, Bikes Are Outselling New Cars”. NPR. 24 October 2013.

^ Lowe, Marcia D. (1989). The Bicycle: Vehicle for a Small Planet. Worldwatch Institute. ISBN 978-0-916468-91-0.[page needed]

^ “Bicycle: The Unnoticed Potential”. BicyclePotential.org. 2009. Archivedfrom the original on 25 June 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2011.

^ Niklas Sieber (1998). “Appropriate Transportation and Rural Development in Makete District, Tanzania” (PDF). Journal of Transport Geography. 6 (1): 69–73. doi:10.1016/S0966-6923(97)00040-9. Retrieved 9 July 2011.

^ “Project Tsunami Report Confirms The Power of Bicycle” (PDF). World Bicycle Relief. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 December 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2011.

Jump up to:

a b c Willard, Frances Elizabeth (1895). A Wheel Within a Wheel: How I Learned to Ride the Bicycle, with Some Reflections by the Way. Woman’s Temperance Publishing Association. pp. 53, 56.

^ Roberts, Jacob (2017). “Women’s work”. Distillations. 3 (1): 6–11. Retrieved 22 March 2018.

^ Husted Harper, Ida (1898). The life and work of Susan B. Anthony: including public addresses, her own letters and many from her contemporaries during fifty years. A story of the evolution of the status of woman, Volume 2. 2. The Bowen-Merrill Company.

^ “Wilbur Wright Working in the Bicycle Shop”. World Digital Library. 1897. Retrieved 22 July 2013.

Jump up to:

a b c d Norcliffe 2001, p. 23.

Jump up to:

a b Norcliffe 2001, p. 106.

Jump up to:

a b c d Norcliffe 2001, p. 108.

^ Norcliffe 2001, pp. 142–47.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 145.

^ Babaian, Sharon. The Most Benevolent Machine: A Historical Assessment of Cycles in Canada (Ottawa: National Museum of Science and Technology, 1998), p. 97.

^ Babaian, p. 98.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 8.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 12.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 14.

^ Norcliffe 2001, pp. 147–48.

^ Norcliffe 2001, pp. 187–88.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 208.

^ Norcliffe 2001, pp. 243–45.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 121.

Jump up to:

a b Norcliffe 2001, p. 123.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 212.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 214.

Jump up to:

a b Norcliffe 2001, p. 131.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 30.

Jump up to:

a b Norcliffe 2001, p. 125.

^ Norcliffe 2001, pp. 125–26.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 238.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 128.

^ Norcliffe 2001, pp. 214–15.

^ “The Wrights’ bicycle shop”. 2007. Archived from the original on 25 January 2007. Retrieved 5 February 2007.

^ Francois Bougo (26 May 2010). “Beijing looks to revitalise bicycle culture”. Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 31 May 2010.

^ The Economist, 15 February 2003

^ “Italian bicycle sales ‘surpass those of cars'”. BBC News. 2 October 2012.

^ Illich, I. (1974). Energy and equity. New York, Harper & Row.

^ “Global cyclists say NO to carbon – opt for CDM” Archived 4 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The World Bank, 27 October 2015

^ “Peddling religion: Why secular academics fret about an “Islamic bicycle””. The Economist. 15 September 2012.

^ Michael Slackman (9 September 2007). “Molding the Ideal Islamic Citizen”. The New York Times.

^ Farzaneh Milani (28 June 2007). “‘Islamic bicycle’ can’t slow Iranian women”. USA Today.

^ “High Growth and Big Margins in the $61 Billion Bicycle Industry”. Seeking Alpha. Archived from the original on 28 April 2009. Retrieved 24 October2011.

^ “The Business of Bicycles | Manufacturing | Opportunities”. DARE. 1 June 2009. Archived from the original on 10 November 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2011.

Jump up to:

a b “2014 European Bicycle Industry & Market Profile”. Confederation of the European Bicycle Industry. 2015.

^ “Want Safer Streets for Cyclists? Ditch the Helmet Laws”. Bloomberg.com. 5 April 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2020.

^ Van Lierop, Dea; Grimsrud, Michael; El-Geneidy, Ahmed (2014). “Breaking into Bicycle Theft: Insights from Montreal, Canada”. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation: 490–501.

^ “About Bicycle Theft”. bicyclelaw.com. Retrieved 12 February 2014.

^ van Lierop Grimsrud El-Geneidy (2015). “Breaking into bicycle theft: Insights from Montreal, Canada” (PDF). International Journal of Sustainable Transportation. Retrieved 30 September 2015.

^ “Bike serial numbers”. Retrieved 2 August 2017. Okay, fine, so maybe there are a few bikes without serial numbers, but this is rare and typical only on hand made bikes or really old bicycles.

LEAVES

 “Nutrition facts for raw spinach per 100 g; USDA Nutrient Data SR-21”. 2014. Archived from the original on 20 September 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014.

^ Kessler, F.; Glauser, G. (2014). “Prenylquinone Profiling in Whole Leaves and Chloroplast Subfractions”. Plant Isoprenoids. Methods in Molecular Biology. 1153. pp. 213–26. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-0606-2_15. ISBN 978-1-4939-0605-5. PMID 24777800.

^ Chang, C. -H.; Wang, Y. -W.; Yeh Liu, P. -Y.; Kao Yang, Y. -H. (2014). “A practical approach to minimize the interaction of dietary vitamin K with warfarin”. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 39 (1): 56–60. doi:10.1111/jcpt.12104. PMID 24383939. S2CID 206036115.

^ National Research Council (U.S.), Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Lost Crops of Africa: Vegetables, pp. 6, 35f. Books Archived 20 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine

^ “ECHO”. Archived from the original on 10 May 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2019.

^ Lynn Livanos Athan. “Horta Vrasta – Boiled Leafy Greens”. About.com Food. Archived from the original on 20 February 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2012.

^ “dall’olio al preboggion”. cogornese.it. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2012.

^ “Liguria-style omelette with borage and sausage”. Italian recipes – Italian food culture – Academia Barilla. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2015.

SWALLOW

 “Swallow”. Encyclopaedia Britannica.

^ Angela Turner; Chris Rose (2010). A Handbook to the Swallows and Martins of the World. A&C Black. p. 12. ISBN 9781408131725.

Jump up to:

a b Turner, Angela; Rose, Chris (1989). Swallows and martins: an identification guide and handbook. Houghton-Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-395-51174-9.

^ Rafinesque, Constantine Samuel (1815). Analyse de la nature ou, Tableau de l’univers et des corps organisés (in French). 1815. Palermo: Self-published. p. 68.

^ Bock, Walter J. (1994). History and Nomenclature of Avian Family-Group Names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Number 222. New York: American Museum of Natural History. pp. 149, 252. hdl:2246/830.

^ Alström, Per; Olsson, Urban; Lei, Fumin (2013). “A review of the recent advances in the systematics of the avian superfamily Sylvioidea”. Chinese Birds. 4 (2): 99–131. doi:10.5122/cbirds.2013.0016.

Jump up to:

a b Mayr, E.; Amadon, D (1951). “A Classification of Recent Birds” (PDF). American Museum Novitates. 1496: 16.

^ Sheldon, Frederick H.; Whittingham, Linda A.; Moyle, Robert G.; Slikas, Beth; Winkler, David W. (April 2005). “Phylogeny of swallows (Aves: Hirundinidae) estimated from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences”. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 35 (1): 254–270. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.11.008. PMID 15737595.

Jump up to:

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Turner, Angela (2004). “Family Hirundinidae (Swallows and Martins)”. In Josep del Hoyo; Andrew Elliott; David A. Christie (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 9. Lynx Edicions. pp. 602–638. ISBN 978-84-87334-69-6.

^ Winkler, D. W.; Sheldon, F. H. (1993). “Evolution of nest construction in swallows (Hirundinidae): a molecular phylogenetic perspective”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 90 (12): 5705–5707. Bibcode:1993PNAS…90.5705W. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.12.5705. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 46790. PMID 8516319.

^ Hails, C.J (1979). “A comparison of flight energetics in hirundines and other birds”. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology. 63 (4): 581–585. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(79)90199-3.

^ Tyrrell, Luke P.; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban (2017). “The hawk-eyed songbird: Retinal morphology, eye shape, and visual fields of an aerial insectivore”. The American Naturalist. 189 (6): 709–717. doi:10.1086/691404. ISSN 0003-0147. PMID 28514631. S2CID 3923166.

^ Norberg, R. Ake (1994). “Swallow Tail Streamer is a Mechanical Device for Self Deflection of Tail Leading Edge, Enhancing Aerodynamic Efficiency and Flight Manoeuvrability”. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 257 (1350): 227–233. Bibcode:1994RSPSB.257..227N. doi:10.1098/rspb.1994.0119. S2CID 86592049.

Jump up to:

a b Buchanan, Katherine L.; Evans, Matthew R. (2000). “The effect of tail streamer length on aerodynamic performance in the barn swallow”. Behavioral Ecology. 11 (2): 228–238. doi:10.1093/beheco/11.2.228.

^ Møller, Anders pape (1992). “Sexual selection in the monogamous barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). II. Mechanisms of sexual selection”. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 5 (4): 603–624. doi:10.1046/j.1420-9101.1992.5040603.x. S2CID 85260912.

Jump up to:

a b Gaunt, Abbot (1969). “Myology of the Leg in Swallows”. Auk. 86 (1): 41–53. doi:10.2307/4083540. JSTOR 4083540.

^ Bańbura, Jerzy (1986). “Sexual dimorphism in wing and tail length as shown by the Swallow Hirundo rustica“. Journal of Zoology. 201 (1): 131–136. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1986.tb03625.x.

^ Gill, Frank B. (1995). Ornithology. W. H. Freeman. p. 434. ISBN 978-0-7167-2415-5.

^ Pratt, H.; Bruner, P; Berrett, D. (1987). The Birds of Hawaii and the Tropical Pacific. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-691-08402-2.

^ Sinclair, Ian; Olivier Langrand (2005). Birds of the Indian Ocean Islands. Struik. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-86872-956-2.

^ Korczak-Abshire, Małgorzata; Lees, Alexander; Jojczyk, Agata (2001). “First documented record of barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) in the Antarctic”. Polish Polar Research. 32 (4): 355–360. doi:10.2478/v10183-011-0021-9.

^ Tarburton, M.K. (1993). “A Comparison of the Breeding Biology of the Welcome Swallow in Australia and Recently Colonized New Zealand”. Emu. 93 (1): 34–43. doi:10.1071/MU9930034.

^ In 1878, Dr. Elliott Coues, listed titles of 182 papers dealing with the hibernation of swallows ((USGS: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center) “Early ideas about migration” Archived 2008-08-27 at the Wayback Machine).

^ Lariewski, Robert C.; Thompson, Henry J. (1965). “Field Observation of Torpidity in the Violet-Green Swallow” (PDF). Condor. 68 (1): 102–103. doi:10.2307/1365178. JSTOR 1365178.

^ Serventy, D. L. (1970). “Torpidity in the White-backed Swallow”. Emu. 70 (1): 27–28. doi:10.1071/mu970027a.

^ Prinzinger, R; Siedle, K (1988). “Ontogeny of metabolism, thermoregulation and torpor in the house martin Delichon u. urbica (L.) and its ecological significance”. Oecologia. 76 (2): 307–312. Bibcode:1988Oecol..76..307P. doi:10.1007/BF00379969. PMID 28312213. S2CID 52596.

^ Bijlsma, R (2003). “A Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica roost under attack: timing and risks in the presence of African Hobbies Falco cuvieri (PDF). Ardea. 93 (1): 37–48. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-31.

^ Shields, William (1984). “Barn swallow mobbing: Self-defence, collateral kin defence, group defence, or parental care?”. Animal Behaviour. 32 (1): 132–148. doi:10.1016/s0003-3472(84)80331-0. S2CID 53193659.

^ McCarty, John P.; David W. Winkler (1999). “Foraging Ecology and Diet Selectivity of Tree Swallows Feeding Nestlings” (PDF). Condor. 101 (2): 246–254. doi:10.2307/1369987. JSTOR 1369987.

^ Hespenheide, Henry A. (1975). “Selective predation by two swifts and a swallow in Central America”. Ibis. 117 (1): 82–99. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1975.tb04189.x.

^ Underhill, L; Hofmeyr, J (2007). “Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica disperse seeds of Rooikrans Acacia cyclops, an invasive alien plant in the Fynbos Biome”. Ibis. 149 (3): 468–471. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.2007.00598.x.

Jump up to:

a b Orłowski, Grzegorz; Karg, Jerzy (2013). “Diet breadth and overlap in three sympatric aerial insectivorous birds at the same location”. Bird Study. 60 (4): 475–483. doi:10.1080/00063657.2013.839622.

^ Brown, C; Brown, M (1986). “Ectoparasitism as a Cost of Coloniality in Cliff Swallows (Hirundo pyrrhonota)”. Ecology. 67 (5): 1206–1218. doi:10.2307/1938676. JSTOR 1938676.

^ Brown, C (1984). “Laying Eggs in a Neighbor’s Nest: Benefit and Cost of Colonial Nesting in Swallows”. Science. 224 (4648): 518–519. Bibcode:1984Sci…224..518B. doi:10.1126/science.224.4648.518. PMID 17753777. S2CID 21128259.

^ Møller, Anders Pape (1987). “Advantages and disadvantages of coloniality in the swallow, Hirundo rustica“. Animal Behaviour. 35 (3): 819–832. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(87)80118-5. ISSN 0003-3472. S2CID 53185342.

^ Hirundinidae. eeb.cornell.edu

^ Swallows (Hirundinidae). Answers.com

^ Snapp, B (1976). “Colonial Breeding in the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) and Its Adaptive Significance” (PDF). The Condor. 78 (4): 471–480. doi:10.2307/1367096. JSTOR 1367096.

^ Saino, N; Galeotti, P; Sacchi, R; Møller, A (1997). “Song and immunological condition in male barn swallows (Hirundo rustica)”. Behavioral Ecology. 8 (94): 364–371. doi:10.1093/beheco/8.4.364.

^ Tobias, Joe (2000). “Little known Oriental Bird: White-eyed River-Martin: 1”. Oriental Bird Club Bulletin. 31.

^ Townsend, Jason; Esteban Garrido; Danilo A. Mejia (2008). “Nests and Nesting Behavior of Golden Swallow (Tachycineta euchrysea) in Abandoned Bauxite Mines in the Dominican Republic”. Wilson Journal of Ornithology. 120 (4): 867–871. doi:10.1676/08-001.1. S2CID 85973776.

^ Jackson, Jerome; Tate Jr, James (1974). “An Analysis of Nest Box Use by Purple Martins, House Sparrows, and Starlings in Eastern North America”. The Wilson Bulletin. 86(4): 435–449. JSTOR 4160543.

Jump up to:

a b c Brian, P.W. (1955). Bird Navigation. Cambridge University Press. pp. 57–58. Retrieved 2009-03-01.

^ [1]

^ Anonymous (1889). Zoologist: A Monthly Journal of Natural History, ser.3 v.13. J. Van Voorst. pp. 398–399. Retrieved 2009-03-01.

^ Eyers, Jonathan (2011). Don’t Shoot the Albatross!: Nautical Myths and Superstitions. A&C Black, London, UK. ISBN 978-1-4081-3131-2.

^ “Animal Congregations, or What Do You Call a Group of…..?”. USGS.gov. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. Archived from the original on 20 March 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2011.

 “Coccinellidae Latreille, 1807”. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 24 July 2012.

^ “Wikispecies: Microweiseinae”. 2012. Retrieved 9 March2013.

^ “coccinellid”. The New Oxford Dictionary of English. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1998. p. 351. ISBN 0-19-861263-X. coccinellid /,kɒksɪ’nɛlɪd/ noun a beetle of a family (coccinelidae) that includes the ladybirds

^ Seago, A. E.; Giorgi, J. A.; Li, J.; Ślipińskia, A. (July 2011). “Phylogeny, classification and evolution of ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) based on simultaneous analysis of molecular and morphological data”. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 60 (1): 137–151. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.015. PMID 21426943.

^ White, R.E. 1983. A field guide to the beetles of North America. Peterson Field Guide Series #29.

^ Society, National Geographic. “Ladybugs, Ladybug Pictures, Ladybug Facts – National Geographic”. Retrieved 4 October2016.

^ Brown, L., ed. (2007). The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. 1(6 ed.). p. 441.

Jump up to:

a b Anonymous. “Why are ladybirds so-called?”. UK Ladybird survey. Archived from the original on 1 July 2018. Retrieved 15 October 2010.

^ Samaha, John M. “Marian Roots of the Name”. Our Lady’s Bug. Dayton, Ohio: International Marian Research Institute. Archived from the original on 15 December 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2010.

^ Roy, Helen E.; Brown, Peter M.J.; et al. (15 April 2013). Ladybirds (2nd ed.). Pelagic publishing. p. 142. ISBN 9781907807077.

^ Anonymous. “common name: ladybirds, ladybird beetles, lady beetles, ladybugs (of Florida)”. Featured creatures. University of Florida. Retrieved 8 April 2010.

^ Judy Allen & Tudor Humphries (2000). Are You A Ladybug?, Kingfisher, p. 30

^ Seago, Ainsley E.; Giorgi, Jose Adriano; Li, Jiahui; Slipinski, Adam (15 March 2011). “Phylogeny, classification and evolution of ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) based on simultaneous analysis of molecular and morphological data”(PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 60: 137–151. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.015. PMID 21426943. Retrieved 14 February 2016.

^ “Everything Ladybug! The source for Ladybug Stuff!”. Everything-ladybug.com. Archived from the original on 14 March 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2010.

^ Anonymous. “Ladybird spotters”. UK Ladybird survey. Archived from the original on 1 July 2018. Retrieved 17 June2010.

Jump up to:

a b Hodek, Ivo; Honek, A. ; van Emden, Helmut F. Ecology and Behaviour of the Ladybird Beetles. Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell 2012. ISBN 978-1-4051-8422-9

^ “European corn borer – Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner)”. entnemdept.ufl.edu. Retrieved 13 November 2017.

^ “The European Corn Borer”. www.ent.iastate.edu. Retrieved 13 November 2017.

^ Roger, Caroline. Mechanisms of Prey Selection in the Ladybeetle Coleomegilla maculata. Thesis. Department of Natural Resource Sciences. Macdonald campus of McGill University Montréal. Canada 1999 ISBN 0-612-50249-X

^ Smart, John (1963). British Museum (Natural History) Instructions for Collectors NO. 4A. Insects. London: Trustees of the British Museum.

^ Almeida, Lúcia M. ; Corrêa, Geovan H. Giorgi, José A. ; Grossi, Paschoal C. New record of predatory ladybird beetle (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) feeding on extrafloral nectaries. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 55(3): 447–450, setembro, 2011

^ Sands, D. P. A. and R. G. Van Driesche. 2000. Evaluating host specificity of agents for biological control of arthropods: rationale, methodology and interpretation, pp. 69-83. In Van Driesche, R. G., T. A. Heard, A. S. McClay, and R. Reardon (eds.). Proceedings of Session: Host Specificity Testing of Exotic Arthropod Biological Control Agents: The Biological Basis for Improvement in Safety. Xth International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. 4–14 July 1999. Bozeman, Montana. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Bulletin FHTET-99-1, Morgantown, West Virginia, U.S.A.

^ J. Perry & B. Roitberg (2005). “Ladybird mothers mitigate offspring starvation risk by laying trophic eggs”. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 58 (6): 578–586. doi:10.1007/s00265-005-0947-1. S2CID 40491195.

^ “TrekNature – LADY BEETLES Photo”.

^ A. Honek, Z. Martinkova & S. Pekar (2007). “Aggregation characteristics of three species of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) at hibernation sites” (PDF). European Journal of Entomology. 104(1): 51–56. doi:10.14411/eje.2007.008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 8 December2012.

^ “What Is the Life Span of a Ladybug?”. Sciencing. Retrieved 24 December 2017.

^ Roy, Helen; Peter Brown; Robert Frost; Remy Poland (15 June 2011). Ladybirds (Coccinellidae) of Britain and Ireland. The Field Studies Council. p. 204. ISBN 978-1-906698-20-1.

^ Sample, Ian (15 June 2011). “Spot check finds Britain’s native ladybirds struggling to compete with alien invaders”. The Guardian. Guardian Newspapers ltd. p. 3. Retrieved 17 June2011.

^ University of Kentucky-College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service

^ Anonymous (5 July 2001). “Phew, what a scorcher!”. The Northern Echo. Archived from the original on 4 July 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2010.

^ Wainwright, Martin (17 May 2006). “The great drought”. The Guardian. London. Retrieved 8 April 2010.

^ Easton, Sally (2 February 2012). “Ladybird contamination on the rise”. The Drinks Business. Union Press Ltd. Retrieved 21 June2013.

Jump up to:

a b Anonymous (5 October 2004). “‘Deadly ladybird’ sighted in UK”. BBC News. Retrieved 17 June 2010.

^ Anonymous. “The Harlequin Ladybird has landed!”. The Harlequin ladybird survey. Archived from the original on 30 November 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2010.

^ “Invasive Species South Africa – Protecting Biodiversity from Invasion – Harlequin ladybird citizen science project”. Archived from the original on 24 December 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2017.

^ Timmins, Nicholas (14 October 1994). “The Tories in Bournemouth: Teachers promised support as Shephard calls truce”. The Independent. London.

^ Edward Moor (1823). Suffolk Words and Phrases: Or, An Attempt to Collect the Lingual Localisms of that County. J. Loder. pp. 33–.

^ Lewie C. Roache (1960) Ladybug, Ladybug: What’s in a Name? The Coleopterists Bulletin 14(1):21-25.

^ Szkolnastrona.pl. “szkolnastrona – Przedszkole Publiczne im. Jana Brzechwy w Małomicach – Nasze grupy – BIEDRONECZKI – 4 LATKI -“.

^ “Bishop Barnaby”. Notes and Queries. 9. 29 December 1849.

^ “dexonline”.[dead link]

^ Born to Kvetch, Michael Wex, St. Martin’s Press, New York, 2005, ISBN 0-312-30741-1.

^ Gani, Aisha (12 October 2015). “Ladybird books introduce Peter and Jane to hipsters and hangovers” – via www.theguardian.com.

^ “Ladybird”. www.penguin.co.uk.

^ Seaton, Paul. “Ladybird Clothing – a history of Pasolds”. www.woolworthsmuseum.co.uk.

^ Anonymous (April 2004). “Speech by Mrs Maud de Boer-Buquicchio on the occasion of the placement of a ladybird tile at the Council of Europe”. Council of Europe. Retrieved 21 September 2011.

^ “TITLE 29 – CHAPTER 3. STATE SEAL, SONG AND SYMBOLS – Part . [REFER TO THE BOOK FOR THE PROPER TABLE]”. delcode.delaware.gov.

^ www.staffmedia.com, StaffMedia Branding Design S.L. ->. “Estación de Esquí de Candanchú – Ven a esquiar en Familia”. Retrieved 15 September 2016.

SCALLOP

 Whitney, D.W. (1890) Scallop The Century Dictionary: An Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language p.5371, Century Company, and (2009) The Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition, Oxford University.

^ Robinson & Robinson 2000, p. 65.

^ Shumway & Parsons 2011, p. 207.

^ Shumway & Parsons 2011, p. 124.

^ Milsom & Rigby 2009, p. 62.

Jump up to:

a b c d e f g h Drew 1906, pp. 5–6.

^ Shumway & Parsons 2011, p. 59.

Jump up to:

a b c Hautmann, Michael (2010). “The first scallop” (PDF). Paläontologische Zeitschrift. 84 (2): 317–322. doi:10.1007/s12542-009-0041-5. S2CID 84457522.

^ Speiser, Daniel I.; Johnsen, Sönke (2008-12-29). “Comparative Morphology of the Concave Mirror Eyes of Scallops (Pectinoidea)”. American Malacological Bulletin. 26 (1–2): 27–33. doi:10.4003/006.026.0204. ISSN 0740-2783. S2CID 11584708.

^ Speiser, D. I.; Loew, E. R.; Johnsen, S. (2011). “Spectral sensitivity of the concave mirror eyes of scallops: potential influences of habitat, self-screening and longitudinal chromatic aberration”. Journal of Experimental Biology. 214 (3): 422–431. doi:10.1242/jeb.048108. PMID 21228201.

^ “Eyes detect changing movement patterns: queen scallop”. asknature.org.

^ Land, MF; Fernald, RD (1992). “The evolution of eyes”(PDF). Annual Review of Neuroscience. 15: 1–29. doi:10.1146/annurev.ne.15.030192.000245. PMID 1575438.

^ Speiser, Daniel I.; Johnsen, Sönke (2008-07-01). “Scallops visually respond to the size and speed of virtual particles”. Journal of Experimental Biology. 211 (13): 2066–2070. doi:10.1242/jeb.017038. ISSN 0022-0949. PMID 18552295.

Jump up to:

a b c Shumway & Parsons 2011, pp. 689–690.

^ Dore 2013, p. 152.

^ Gosling 2015, p. 29.

^ Cheng, J.-Y.; Davison, I. G.; Demont, M. E. (1996). “Dynamics and energetics of scallop locomotion”. Journal of Experimental Biology. 199 (9): 1931–1946. PMID 9319845.

^ Joll, L. M. (1989). “Swimming behavior of the saucer scallop Amusium balloti (Mollusca: Pectinidae)”. Marine Biology. 102 (3): 299–305. doi:10.1007/BF00428481. S2CID 84250961.

^ Land, M.F. (1966). “Activity in the optic nerve of Pecten maximus in response to changes in light intensity, and to pattern and movements in optical environment” (PDF). Journal of Experimental Biology. 45 (1): 83–99.

Jump up to:

a b Philipp, E.E.R.; Schmidt, M.; Gsottbauer, C.; Sänger, A. M.; Abele, D. (2008). “Size- and age- dependent changes in adductor muscle swimming physiology of the scallop Aequipecten opercularis”. Journal of Experimental Biology. 211 (15): 2492–2501. doi:10.1242/jeb.015966. PMID 18626084.

^ Guerra, C.; Zenteno-Savín, T.; Maeda-Martínez, A. N.; Abele, D.; Philipp, E. E. R. (2013). “The effect of predator exposure and reproduction on oxidative stress parameters in the Catarina scallop Argopecten ventricosus”. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 165 (1): 89–96. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2013.02.006. PMID 23416890.

^ Boadas, M.A.; Nusetti, O.; Mundarain, F. (1997). “Seasonal variation in the properties of muscle mitochondria from the tropical scallop Euvola (Pecten) ziczac”. Marine Biology. 128 (2): 247–255. doi:10.1007/s002270050089. S2CID 84538863.

^ Matlins 2001, p. 56.

Jump up to:

a b Bloom, S. (1975). “The motile escape response of a sessile prey: a sponge-scallop mutualism”. Journal of Experimental Biology and Ecology. 17 (3): 311–321. doi:10.1016/0022-0981(75)90006-4.

Jump up to:

a b Pitcher, C.R.; Butler, A.J. (1987). “Predation by asteroids, escape response, and morphometrics of scallops with epizoic sponges”. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 112 (3): 233–249. doi:10.1016/0022-0981(87)90071-2.

Jump up to:

a b Forester, A.J. (1979). “The association between the sponge Halichondria panicea (Pallas) and scallop Chlamys varia (L.): a commensal protective mutualism”. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 36 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1016/0022-0981(79)90096-0.

^ Donovan, D.; Bingham, B.; Farren, H.; Gallardo, R.; Vigilant, V. (2002). “Effects of sponge encrustation on the swimming behaviour energetics and morphometry of the scallop Chlamys hastata (PDF). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 82 (3): 469–476. doi:10.1017/s0025315402005738.

Jump up to:

a b c Hart, D.R.; Chute, A.S. (2004). “Essential Fish Habitat Source Document: Sea Scallop, Placopecten magellanicus, Life History and Habitat Characteristics” (PDF). NOAA Tech Memo NMFS NE-189.

^ “Scallop Aquaculture” (PDF). College of Marine Science, University of South Florida.

^ Rice 2012, p. 47.

^ Waller, T. R. (1993). “The evolution of Chlamys (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pectinidae) in the tropical western Atlantic and eastern Pacific”. American Malacological Bulletin. 10 (2): 195–249.

^ Harper et al. 2000, p. 254.

^ Malkowsky, Yaron; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette (May 2012). “Phylogeny and spatio-temporal distribution of European Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia)”. Systematics and Biodiversity. 10 (2): 233–242. doi:10.1080/14772000.2012.676572. S2CID 84085349.

^ Waller, Thomas R. (2006). Shumway, Sandra E. (ed.). New phylogenies of the Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia): Reconciling morphological and molecular approaches. Scallops: biology, ecology and aquaculture II. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 1–44.

^ Brand, A.R. (2006). Scallop ecology: distributions and behavior. Scallops: Biology, Ecology and Aquaculture. Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science. 35. pp. 651–744. doi:10.1016/S0167-9309(06)80039-6. ISBN 9780444504821.

^ Raines, Poppe & Groh 2006.

^ Barucca, M., Olmo, E., Schiaparelli, S. & Canapa, A. (2004): Molecular phylogeny of the family Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

^ Waller, Thomas R. (1972). The functional significance of some shell micro-structures in the Pectinacea. Paleontology. International Geological Congress. pp. 48–56.

^ Shumway, Sandra E.; Parsons, G. Jay, eds. (7 June 2016). Scallops: Biology, Ecology, Aquaculture, and Fisheries. Elsevier Science. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-444-62719-3.

^ Waller, Thomas R. (1986). “A new genus and species of scallop (Bivalvia: Pectinidae) from off Somalia, and the definition of a new tribe Decatopectinin i”. Nautilus. 100 (2): 39–46. doi:10.5962/bhl.part.26491.

^ Shumway & Waller 1991, pp. 1–73.

^ Waller, Thomas R. (1993). “The evolution of “Chlamys” (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pectinidae) in the tropical western Atlantic and eastern Pacific”. American Malacological Bulletin. 10 (2): 195–249.

^ Alejandrino, A.; Puslednik, L.; Serb, J. M. (2011). “Convergent and parallel evolution in life habit of the scallops”. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 11 (1): 164. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-164. PMC 3129317. PMID 21672233.

^ Waller, Thomas R. (2007). “The evolutionary and biogeographic origins of the endemic Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) of the Galápagos Islands”. Journal of Paleontology. 81 (5): 929–950. doi:10.1666/pleo05-145.1. S2CID 86121432.

^ Dijkstra, H.H.; Maestrati, P. (2012). “Pectinoidea (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Propeamussiidae, Cyclochlamydidae n. fam., Entoliidae and Pectinidae) from the Vanuatu Archipelago”. Zoosystema. 34 (2): 389–408. doi:10.5252/z2012n2a12. S2CID 85935928.

^ Waller, Thomas R. (1984). “The ctenolium of scallop shells: functional morphology and evolution of a key family-level character in the Pectinacea (Mollusca: Bivalvia)”. Malacologia. 25 (1): 203–219.

^ Puslednik, L.; Serb, J.M. (2008). “Molecular phylogenetics of the Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) and the effect of outgroupselection and increased taxon sampling on tree topology”. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 48 (3): 1178–1188. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.05.006. PMID 18579415.

^ Barucca, M.; Olmo, E.; Schiaparelli, S.; Capana, A. (2004). “Molecular phylogeny of the family Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) based on mitochondrial 16S and 12S rRNA genes”. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 31 (1): 89–95. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2003.07.003. PMID 15019610.

Jump up to:

a b c Matsumoto, M.; Hayami, I. (2000). “Phylogenetic analysis of the family Pectinidae (Bivalvia) based on mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit”. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 66 (4): 477–488. doi:10.1093/mollus/66.4.477.

^ Saavedra, C.; Peña, J.B (2006). “Phylogenetics of American scallops (Bivalvia: Pectinidae) based on partial 16S and 12S ribosomal RNA gene sequences”. Marine Biology. 150 (1): 111–119. doi:10.1007/s00227-006-0335-z. S2CID 84205954.

^ Pamilo, P.; Nei, M. (1988). “Relationships between gene trees and species trees”. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 5 (5): 568–583. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a040517. PMID 3193878.

^ Wu, C.I. (1991). “Inferences of species phylogeny in relation to segregation of ancient polymorphisms”. Genetics. 127 (2): 429–435. PMC 1204370. PMID 2004713.

^ Waller, Thomas R., 1998. Origin of the Molluscan Class Bivalvia and a Phylogeny of Major Groups. Pp. 1–45. In: P.A. Johnston & J.W. Haggart (eds), Bivalves: An Eon of Evolution. Calgary: University of Calgary Press xiv + 461 pp.

^ Habe 1977.

^ Shumway & Parsons 2011, p. 902.

^ Walker, Margaret (1991). “What price Tasmanian scallops? A report of morbidity and mortality associated with the scallop diving season in Tasmania 1990”. South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society Journal. 21 (1). Retrieved 2013-07-16.

Jump up to:

a b Arnold, Naomi (July–August 2018). “What we do in the shallows”. New Zealand Geographic. 152: 56–73.

^ “Scallops”. Forest and Bird.[better source needed]

^ Pinet 2011, p. 333.

^ Granata, Flick & Martin 2012, p. 96.

^ Shumway & Parsons 2011, p. 1355.

^ Rolnick & Peterson 2014, p. 47.

^ Broder, Andy (June 7, 2012). “AndyTalk: Beyond Lox – Smoked Seafood Hold the Bagels”. Phoenix New Times. Retrieved January 31, 2017.

^ Rombauer & Becker 1964, p. 369.

^ Thomas, Hope B. Werness; line drawings by Joanne H. Benedict and Hope B. Werness; additional drawings by Tiffany Ramsay-Lozano and Scott (2003). The continuum encyclopedia of animal symbolism in art. New York: Continuum. p. 359. ISBN 9780826415257.

^ Starkie 1965, p. 71.

^ The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (November 26, 2008). “Scallop BIVALVE”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 21, 2017.

Jump up to:

a b Davies, Paul; Howard, Deborah; Pullan, Wendy, eds. (2013). Architecture and pilgrimage, 1000–1500: southern Europe and beyond. Aldershot, Hamps.: Ashgate Publishing. pp. 73–86. ISBN 9781472410832.

^ The Church 1963, p. 22.

Jump up to:

a b Willard & Owens 1997, p. 68.

^ Stix, Stix & Abbott 1968, p. [pages needed].

^ “New York State Shell: Bay Scallop”. State Symbols USA. Retrieved 2012-05-24.

^ Salisbury 2001, p. 11.

^ Fontana 1994, pp. 88, 103.

^ Gutzwiller, K (1992). “The Nautilus, the Halycon, and Selenaia: Callimachus’s Epigram 5 Pf.= 14 G.-P”. Classical Antiquity. 11 (2): 194–209. doi:10.2307/25010972. JSTOR 25010972.

^ Johnson 1994, p. 230.

^ “Birth of Venus”. artble.com. 2017. Retrieved 25 February2017.

^ Slavin, S (2003). “Walking as Spiritual Practice: The Pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela”. Body and Society. 9 (1): 18. doi:10.1177/1357034X030093001. S2CID 144403461.

^ Gauding 2009, p. 169.

^ Thomas, Isabella. “Pilgrim’s Progress”. Europe in the UK. European Commission. Archived from the original on March 23, 2008. Retrieved January 21, 2017.[better source needed]

^ Dunford & Lee 2012, p. 486.

SEASTAR

 Sweet, Elizabeth (22 November 2005). “Fossil Groups: Modern forms: Asteroids: Extant Orders of the Asteroidea”. University of Bristol. Archived from the original on 14 July 2007. Retrieved 31 May 2016.

Jump up to:

a b c d e f g h i Knott, Emily (7 October 2004). “Asteroidea. Sea stars and starfishes”. Tree of Life web project. Retrieved 10 May 2013.

Jump up to:

a b Wu, Liang; Ji, Chengcheng; Wang, Sishuo; Lv, Jianhao (2012). “The advantages of the pentameral symmetry of the starfish”. arXiv:1202.2219 [q-bio.PE].

^ Prager, Ellen (2011). Sex, Drugs, and Sea Slime: The Oceans’ Oddest Creatures and Why They Matter. University of Chicago Press. p. 74. ISBN 9780226678726.

Jump up to:

a b c Ruppert et al., 2004. p. 876

^ Sweat, L. H. (31 October 2012). “Glossary of terms: Phylum Echinodermata”. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 12 May2013.

Jump up to:

a b c d e f g Ruppert et al, 2004. pp. 888–889

Jump up to:

a b Carefoot, Tom. “Pedicellariae”. Sea Stars: Predators & Defenses. A Snail’s Odyssey. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013.

^ Barnes, R. S. K.; Callow, P.; Olive, P. J. W. (1988). The Invertebrates: a new synthesis. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. pp. 158–160. ISBN 978-0-632-03125-2.

^ Lawrence, J. M. (24 January 2013). “The Asteroid Arm”. Starfish: Biology and Ecology of the Asteroidea. pp. 15–23. ISBN 9781421407876. in Lawrence (2013)

Jump up to:

a b c Fox, Richard (25 May 2007). Asterias forbesi. Invertebrate Anatomy OnLine. Lander University. Retrieved 19 May 2012.

^ O’Neill, P. (1989). “Structure and mechanics of starfish body wall”. Journal of Experimental Biology. 147: 53–89. doi:10.1242/jeb.147.1.53. PMID 2614339.

Jump up to:

a b Ruppert et al., 2004. pp. 879–883

^ Hennebert, E.; Santos, R.; Flammang, P. (2012). “Echinoderms don’t suck: evidence against the involvement of suction in tube foot attachment” (PDF). Zoosymposia. 1: 25–32. doi:10.11646/zoosymposia.7.1.3. ISSN 1178-9913.

Jump up to:

a b c Dorit, R. L.; Walker, W. F.; Barnes, R. D. (1991). Zoology. Saunders College Publishing. p. 782. ISBN 978-0-03-030504-7.

^ Cavey, Michael J.; Wood, Richard L. (1981). “Specializations for excitation-contraction coupling in the podial retractor cells of the starfish Stylasterias forreri“. Cell and Tissue Research. 218 (3): 475–485. doi:10.1007/BF00210108. PMID 7196288. S2CID 21844282.

^ Carefoot, Tom. “Tube feet”. Sea Stars: Locomotion. A Snail’s Odyssey. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013.

Jump up to:

a b Chengcheng, J.; Wu, L.; Zhoa, W.; Wang, S.; Lv, J. (2012). “Echinoderms have bilateral tendencies:PLoS One”. PLOS ONE. 7 (1): e28978. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028978. PMC 3256158. PMID 22247765.

^ “Leather star – Dermasterias imbricata. Sea Stars of the Pacific Northwest. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2012.

^ McDaniel, Daniel. “Sand star – Luidia foliolata. Sea Stars of the Pacific Northwest. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2012.

Jump up to:

a b c d e f Ruppert et al., 2004. pp. 886–887

Jump up to:

a b c Ruppert et al., 2004. p. 885

Jump up to:

a b c Carefoot, Tom. “Adult feeding”. Sea Stars: Feeding, growth, & regeneration. A Snail’s Odyssey. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.

^ Semmens, Dean C.; Dane, Robyn E.; Pancholi, Mahesh R.; Slade, Susan E.; Scrivens, James H.; Elphick, Maurice R. (2013). “Discovery of a novel neurophysin-associated neuropeptide that triggers cardiac stomach contraction and retraction in starfish”. Journal of Experimental Biology. 216 (21): 4047–4053. doi:10.1242/jeb.092171. PMID 23913946. S2CID 19175526.

Jump up to:

a b c Ruppert et al., 2004. pp. 883–884

^ Ruppert et al., 2004. p. 886

^ Lawrence, John M. (ed.); McClintock, James B.; Amsler, Charles D.; Baker, Bill J. (2013). “8”. Chemistry and Ecological Role of Starfish Secondary Metabolites in “Starfish: Biology and Ecology of the Asteroidea”. JHU Press. ISBN 978-1-4214-1045-6.

^ Zhang, Wen; Guo, Yue-Wei; Gu, Yucheng (2006). “Secondary metabolites from the South China Sea invertebrates: chemistry and biological activity”. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 13 (17): 2041–2090. doi:10.2174/092986706777584960. PMID 16842196.

Jump up to:

a b c Byrne, Maria (2005). “Viviparity in the sea star Cryptasterina hystera (Asterinidae): conserved and modified features in reproduction and development”. Biological Bulletin. 208 (2): 81–91. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.334.314. doi:10.2307/3593116. JSTOR 3593116. PMID 15837957. S2CID 16302535.

^ Ottesen, P. O.; Lucas, J. S. (1982). “Divide or broadcast: interrelation of asexual and sexual reproduction in a population of the fissiparous hermaphroditic seastar Nepanthia belcheri(Asteroidea: Asterinidae)”. Marine Biology. 69 (3): 223–233. doi:10.1007/BF00397488. ISSN 0025-3162. S2CID 84885523.

Jump up to:

a b Crump, R. G.; Emson, R. H. (1983). “The natural history, life history and ecology of the two British species of Asterina(PDF). Field Studies. 5 (5): 867–882. Retrieved 27 July 2011.

Jump up to:

a b McClary, D. J.; Mladenov, P. V. (1989). “Reproductive pattern in the brooding and broadcasting sea star Pteraster militaris“. Marine Biology. 103 (4): 531–540. doi:10.1007/BF00399585. ISSN 0025-3162. S2CID 84867808.

Jump up to:

a b Ruppert et al., 2004. pp. 887–888

^ Hendler, Gordon; Franz, David R. (1982). “The biology of a brooding seastar, Leptasterias tenera, in Block Island”. Biological Bulletin. 162 (3): 273–289. doi:10.2307/1540983. JSTOR 1540983.

^ Chia, Fu-Shiang (1966). “Brooding behavior of a six-rayed starfish, Leptasterias hexactis“. Biological Bulletin. 130 (3): 304–315. doi:10.2307/1539738. JSTOR 1539738.

^ Byrne, M. (1996). “Viviparity and intragonadal cannibalism in the diminutive sea stars Patiriella vivipara and P. parvivipara (family Asterinidae)”. Marine Biology. 125 (3): 551–567. doi:10.1007/BF00353268 (inactive 14 January 2021). ISSN 0025-3162.

Jump up to:

a b Gaymer, C. F.; Himmelman, J. H. “Leptasterias polaris”. Starfish: Biology and Ecology of the Asteroidea. pp. 182–84. in Lawrence (2013)

^ Mercier, A.; Hamel J-F. “Reproduction in Asteroidea”. Starfish: Biology and Ecology of the Asteroidea. p. 37. in Lawrence (2013)

^ Thorson, Gunnar (1950). “Reproductive and larval ecology of marine bottom invertebrates”. Biological Reviews. 25 (1): 1–45. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.1950.tb00585.x. PMID 24537188. S2CID 43678161.

Jump up to:

a b Beach, D. H.; Hanscomb, N. J.; Ormond, R. F. G. (1975). “Spawning pheromone in crown-of-thorns starfish”. Nature. 254(5496): 135–136. Bibcode:1975Natur.254..135B. doi:10.1038/254135a0. PMID 1117997. S2CID 4278163.

Jump up to:

a b Bos A.R.; G.S. Gumanao; B. Mueller; M.M. Saceda (2013). “Size at maturation, sex differences, and pair density during the mating season of the Indo-Pacific beach star Archaster typicus(Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in the Philippines”. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development. 57 (2): 113–119. doi:10.1080/07924259.2012.689264. S2CID 84274160.

^ Run, J. -Q.; Chen, C. -P.; Chang, K. -H.; Chia, F. -S. (1988). “Mating behaviour and reproductive cycle of Archaster typicus(Echinodermata: Asteroidea)”. Marine Biology. 99 (2): 247–253. doi:10.1007/BF00391987. ISSN 0025-3162. S2CID 84566087.

^ Keesing, John K.; Graham, Fiona; Irvine, Tennille R.; Crossing, Ryan (2011). “Synchronous aggregated pseudo-copulation of the sea star Archaster angulatus Müller & Troschel, 1842 (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) and its reproductive cycle in south-western Australia”. Marine Biology. 158 (5): 1163–1173. doi:10.1007/s00227-011-1638-2. ISSN 0025-3162. S2CID 84926100.

^ Miller, Richard L. (12 October 1989). “Evidence for the presence of sexual pheromones in free-spawning starfish”. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 130 (3): 205–221. doi:10.1016/0022-0981(89)90164-0. ISSN 0022-0981.

^ Achituv, Y.; Sher, E. (1991). “Sexual reproduction and fission in the sea star Asterina burtoni from the Mediterranean coast of Israel”. Bulletin of Marine Science. 48 (3): 670–679.

Jump up to:

a b c d Edmondson, C. H. (1935). “Autotomy and regeneration of Hawaiian starfishes” (PDF). Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 11 (8): 3–20.

^ Carnevali, Candia, M.D.; Bonasoro F. (2001). “Introduction to the biology of regeneration in echinoderms”. Microscopy Research and Technique. 55 (6): 365–368. doi:10.1002/jemt.1184. PMID 11782068. S2CID 31052874.

^ Eaves, Alexandra A.; Palmer, A. Richard (2003). “Reproduction: widespread cloning in echinoderm larvae”. Nature. 425 (6954): 146. Bibcode:2003Natur.425..146E. doi:10.1038/425146a. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 12968170. S2CID 4430104.

Jump up to:

a b Jaeckle, William B. (1994). “Multiple modes of asexual reproduction by tropical and subtropical sea star larvae: an unusual adaptation for genet dispersal and survival”. Biological Bulletin. 186 (1): 62–71. doi:10.2307/1542036. ISSN 0006-3185. JSTOR 1542036. PMID 29283296.

^ Vickery, M. S.; McClintock, J. B. (1 December 2000). “Effects of food concentration and availability on the incidence of cloning in planktotrophic larvae of the sea star Pisaster ochraceus“. The Biological Bulletin. 199 (3): 298–304. doi:10.2307/1543186. ISSN 0006-3185. JSTOR 1543186. PMID 11147710.

^ Hayashi, Yutaka; Motokawa, Tatsuo (1986). “Effects of ionic environment on viscosity of catch connective tissue in holothurian body wall”. Journal of Experimental Biology. 125 (1): 71–84. doi:10.1242/jeb.125.1.71. ISSN 0022-0949.

^ Mladenov, Philip V.; Igdoura, Suleiman; Asotra, Satish; Burke, Robert D. (1989). “Purification and partial characterization of an autotomy-promoting factor from the sea star Pycnopodia helianthoides. Biological Bulletin. 176 (2): 169–175. doi:10.2307/1541585. ISSN 0006-3185. JSTOR 1541585. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 12 July 2013.

Jump up to:

a b “Asteroidea (Sea Stars)”. Encyclopedia.com. Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia. 2004. Retrieved 14 July 2012.

^ Mah, Christopher; Nizinski, Martha; Lundsten, Lonny (2010). “Phylogenetic revision of the Hippasterinae (Goniasteridae; Asteroidea): systematics of deep sea corallivores, including one new genus and three new species”. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 160 (2): 266–301. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2010.00638.x.

Jump up to:

a b Pearse, J. S. “Odontaster validus”. Starfish: Biology and Ecology of the Asteroidea. pp. 124–25. in Lawrence (2013)

Jump up to:

a b c Kayal, Mohsen; Vercelloni, Julie; Lison de Loma, Thierry; Bosserelle, Pauline; Chancerelle, Yannick; Geoffroy, Sylvie; Stievenart, Céline; Michonneau, François; Penin, Lucie; Planes, Serge; Adjeroud, Mehdi (2012). Fulton, Christopher (ed.). “Predator crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) outbreak, mass mortality of corals, and cascading effects on reef fish and benthic communities”. PLOS ONE. 7 (10): e47363. Bibcode:2012PLoSO…747363K. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047363. PMC 3466260. PMID 23056635.

^ Turner, R. L. “Echinaster”. Starfish: Biology and Ecology of the Asteroidea. pp. 206–207. in Lawrence (2012)

Jump up to:

a b Florkin, Marcel (2012). Chemical Zoology V3: Echinnodermata, Nematoda, and Acanthocephala. Elsevier. pp. 75–77. ISBN 978-0-323-14311-0.

^ Nybakken, James W.; Bertness, Mark D. (1997). Marine Biology: An Ecological Approach. Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-8053-4582-7.

^ McClain, Joseph (5 April 2021). “Researcher reports cannibalistic echinoderm underwater dwellers”. phys.org. Retrieved 6 April 2021.

^ Menage, B. A.; Sanford, E. “Ecological Role of Sea Stars from Populations to Meta-ecosystems”. Starfish: Biology and Ecology of the Asteroidea. p. 67. in Lawrence (2013)

^ Wagner, S. C. (2012). “Keystone Species”. Nature Education Knowledge. Retrieved 16 May 2013.

^ Paine, R. T. (1966). “Food web complexity and species diversity”. American Naturalist. 100 (190): 65–75. doi:10.1086/282400. JSTOR 2459379. S2CID 85265656.

^ Paine, R. T. (1971). “A short-term experimental investigation of resource partitioning in a New Zealand rocky intertidal habitat”. Ecology. 52 (6): 1096–1106. doi:10.2307/1933819. JSTOR 1933819.

^ Wullf, L. (1995). “Sponge-feeding by the Caribbean starfish Oreaster reticulatus“. Marine Biology. 123 (2): 313–325. doi:10.1007/BF00353623. S2CID 85726832.

^ Scheibling, R. E. (1980). “Dynamics and feeding activity of high-density aggregations of Oreaster reticulatus (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in a sand patch habitat”. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 2: 321–27. Bibcode:1980MEPS….2..321S. doi:10.3354/meps002321.

^ Brodie J, Fabricius K, De’ath G, Okaji K (2005). “Are increased nutrient inputs responsible for more outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish? An appraisal of the evidence”. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 51 (1–4): 266–78. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.10.035. PMID 15757727.

Jump up to:

a b Byrne, M.; O’Hara, T. D.; Lawrence, J. M. “Asterias amurensis”. Starfish: Biology and Ecology of the Asteroidea. pp. 177–179. in Lawrence (2013)

^ “100 of the World’s Worst Invasive Alien Species”. Global Invasive Species Database. Retrieved 16 July 2010.

^ “Fact Sheet: Sea Anemones”. Marine Biological Association. 21 February 2017. Archived from the original on 24 December 2019. Retrieved 10 June 2019.

Jump up to:

a b c Robles, C. “Pisaster ochraceus”. Starfish: Biology and Ecology of the Asteroidea. pp. 166–167. in Lawrence (2013)

Jump up to:

a b Scheibling, R. E. “Oreaster reticulatus”. Starfish: Biology and Ecology of the Asteroidea. p. 150. in Lawrence (2013)

Jump up to:

a b Andersson L, Bohlin L, Iorizzi M, Riccio R, Minale L, Moreno-López W; Bohlin; Iorizzi; Riccio; Minale; Moreno-López (1989). “Biological activity of saponins and saponin-like compounds from starfish and brittle-stars”. Toxicon. 27 (2): 179–88. doi:10.1016/0041-0101(89)90131-1. PMID 2718189.

Jump up to:

a b Mah, Christopher (20 April 2010). “Sea star defense”. The Echinoblog. Retrieved 30 May 2013.

^ Shedd, John G. (2006). “Crown of Thorns Sea Star”. Shedd Aquarium. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2013.

^ Hewson, Ian; Button, Jason B.; Gudenkauf, Brent M.; Miner, Benjamin; Newton, Alisa L.; Gaydos, Joseph K.; Wynne, Janna; Groves, Cathy L.; et al. (2014). “Densovirus associated with sea-star wasting disease and mass mortality”. PNAS. 111 (48): 17278–17283. Bibcode:2014PNAS..11117278H. doi:10.1073/pnas.1416625111. PMC 4260605. PMID 25404293.

^ Peters, L. E.; Mouchka M. E.; Milston-Clements, R. H.; Momoda, T. S.; Menge, B. A. (2008). “Effects of environmental stress on intertidal mussels and their sea star predators”. Oecologia. 156 (3): 671–680. Bibcode:2008Oecol.156..671P. doi:10.1007/s00442-008-1018-x. PMID 18347815. S2CID 19557104.

^ Pincebourde, S.; Sanford, E.; Helmuth, B. (2008). “Body temperature during low tide alters the feeding performance of a top intertidal predator”. Limnology and Oceanography. 53 (4): 1562–1573. Bibcode:2008LimOc..53.1562P. doi:10.4319/lo.2008.53.4.1562.

^ Pincebourde, S.; Sanford, E.; Helmuth, B. (2009). “An intertidal sea star adjusts thermal inertia to avoid extreme body temperatures”. The American Naturalist. 174 (6): 890–897. doi:10.1086/648065. JSTOR 10.1086/648065. PMID 19827942. S2CID 13862880.

^ Pincebourde, S.; Sanford, E.; Helmuth, B. (2013). “Survival and arm abscission are linked to regional heterothermy in an intertidal sea star”. Journal of Experimental Biology. 216 (12): 2183–2191. doi:10.1242/jeb.083881. PMID 23720798. S2CID 4514808.

^ Newton, L. C.; McKenzie, J. D. (1995). “Echinoderms and oil pollution: A potential stress assay using bacterial symbionts”. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 31 (4–12): 453–456. doi:10.1016/0025-326X(95)00168-M.

^ Temara, A.; Skei, J.M.; Gillan, D.; Warnau, M.; Jangoux, M.; Dubois, Ph. (1998). “Validation of the asteroid Asterias rubens(Echinodermata) as a bioindicator of spatial and temporal trends of Pb, Cd, and Zn contamination in the field”. Marine Environmental Research. 45 (4–5): 341–56. doi:10.1016/S0141-1136(98)00026-9.

^ Gooding, Rebecca A.; Harley, Christopher D. G.; Tang, Emily (2009). “Elevated water temperature and carbon dioxide concentration increase the growth of a keystone echinoderm”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (23): 9316–9321. Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.9316G. doi:10.1073/pnas.0811143106. PMC 2695056. PMID 19470464.

Jump up to:

a b Wagonner, Ben (1994). “Echinodermata: Fossil Record”. Echinodermata. The Museum of Paleontology of The University of California at Berkeley. Retrieved 31 May 2013.

^ Benton, Michael J.; Harper, David A. T. (2013). “15. Echinoderms”. Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record. Wiley. ISBN 978-1-118-68540-2.

Jump up to:

a b Knott, Emily (2004). “Asteroidea: Sea stars and starfishes”. Tree of Life web project. Retrieved 19 October2012.

Jump up to:

a b Mah, Christopher L.; Blake, Daniel B. (2012). Badger, Jonathan H (ed.). “Global diversity and phylogeny of the Asteroidea (Echinodermata)”. PLOS ONE. 7 (4): e35644. Bibcode:2012PLoSO…735644M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035644. PMC 3338738. PMID 22563389.

^ Purit, J. B.; Keever, C. C.; Addison, J. A.; Byrne, M.; Hart, M. W.; Grosberg, R. K.; Toonen, R. J. (2012). “Extraordinarily rapid life-history divergence between Cryptasterina sea star species”. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 279(1744): 3914–3922. doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.1343. PMC 3427584. PMID 22810427.

^ Hansson, Hans (2013). “Asteroidea”. WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 19 July 2013.

^ “Etymology of the Latin word Asteroidea”. MyEtymology. 2008. Retrieved 19 July 2013.

^ Wray, Gregory A. (1999). “Echinodermata: Spiny-skinned animals: sea urchins, starfish, and their allies”. Tree of Life web project. Retrieved 19 October 2012.

^ Stöhr, S.; O’Hara, T. “World Ophiuroidea Database”. Retrieved 19 October 2012.

^ Mah, Christopher (2012). “Brisingida”. WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 15 September 2012.

^ Downey, Maureen E. (1986). “Revision of the Atlantic Brisingida (Echinodermata: Asteroidea), with description of a new genus and family” (PDF). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. Smithsonian Institution Press (435): 1–57. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.435. Retrieved 18 October 2012.

^ Mah, Christopher. “Brisingida”. Access Science: Encyclopedia. McGraw-Hill. Archived from the original on 30 October 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2012.

Jump up to:

a b c Vickery, Minako S.; McClintock, James B. (2000). “Comparative morphology of tube feet among the Asteroidea: phylogenetic implications”. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 40 (3): 355–364. doi:10.1093/icb/40.3.355.

^ Mah, Christopher (2012). “Forcipulatida”. WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 15 September 2012.

^ Barnes, Robert D. (1982). Invertebrate Zoology. Holt-Saunders International. p. 948. ISBN 978-0-03-056747-6.

^ Mah, Christopher. “Forcipulatida”. Access Science: Encyclopedia. McGraw-Hill. Archived from the original on 30 October 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2012.

^ Mah, Christopher (2012). “Notomyotida”. WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 15 September 2012.

^ Mah, Christopher (2012). “Paxillosida”. WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 15 September 2012.

^ Matsubara, M.; Komatsu, M.; Araki, T.; Asakawa, S.; Yokobori, S.-I.; Watanabe, K.; Wada, H. (2005). “The phylogenetic status of Paxillosida (Asteroidea) based on complete mitochondrial DNA sequences”. Molecular Genetics and Evolution. 36 (3): 598–605. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.03.018. PMID 15878829.

^ Mah, Christopher (2012). Astropecten polyacanthus Müller & Troschel, 1842″. WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 6 July 2013.

^ Mah, Christopher (2012). “Spinulosida”. WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 15 September 2012.

^ “Spinulosida”. Access Science: Encyclopedia. McGraw-Hill. Archived from the original on 30 October 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2012.

Jump up to:

a b Blake, Daniel B. (1981). “A reassessment of the sea-star orders Valvatida and Spinulosida”. Journal of Natural History. 15(3): 375–394. doi:10.1080/00222938100770291.

^ Mah, Christopher (2012). Echinaster (Echinaster) sepositus(Retzius, 1783)”. WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 6 July 2013.

^ Mah, Christopher (2012). “Valvatida”. WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 15 September 2012.

^ Mah, Christopher (2012). Culcita (Agassiz, 1836)”. WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 6 July 2013.

^ Mah, Christopher (2012). Dermasterias imbricata (Grube, 1857)”. WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 6 July 2013.

^ Mah, Christopher (2012). Xyloplax Baker, Rowe & Clark, 1986″. WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 6 July 2013.

^ Mah, Christopher (2012). “Velatida”. WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 15 September 2012.

^ Mah, Christopher. “Velatida”. Access Science: Encyclopedia. McGraw-Hill. Archived from the original on 30 October 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2012.

^ Mah, Christopher (2012). Pteraster tesselatus Ives, 1888″. WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 6 July2013.

^ “Family Calliasterellidae”. Paleobiology Database. Retrieved 10 May 2013.

^ Walker, Cyril, Ward, DavidFossils : Smithsonian Handbook, ISBN 0-7894-8984-8 (2002, paperback, revisited), ISBN 1-56458-074-1 (1992, 1st edition). Page 186

^ Telford, M. J.; Lowe, C. J.; Cameron, C. B.; Ortega-Martinez, O.; Aronowicz, J.; Oliveri, P.; Copley, R. R. (2014). “Phylogenomic analysis of echinoderm class relationships supports Asterozoa”. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 281(1786): 20140479. doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.0479. PMC 4046411. PMID 24850925.

^ Gale, A. S. (1987). “Phylogeny and classification of the Asteroidea (Echinodermata)”. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 89 (2): 107–132. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1987.tb00652.x.

^ Blake, D. B. (1987). “A classification and phylogeny of post-Paleozoic sea stars (Asteroidea: Echinodermata)”. Journal of Natural History. 21 (2): 481–528. doi:10.1080/00222938700771141.

^ Janies, Daniel A.; Voight, Janet R.; Daly, Marymegan (2011). “Echinoderm phylogeny including Xyloplax, a progenetic asteroid”. Syst. Biol. 60 (4): 420–438. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syr044. PMID 21525529.

^ Wessel, G. M.; Reich, A. M.; Klatsky, P. C. (2010). “Use of sea stars to study basic reproductive processes”. Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine. 56 (3): 236–245. doi:10.3109/19396361003674879. PMC 3983664. PMID 20536323.

^ Lenart Group. “Cytoskeletal dynamics and function in oocytes”. European Molecular Biology Laboratory. Archived from the original on 1 August 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2013.

^ Davydov, P. V.; Shubravyi, O. I.; Vassetzky, S. G. (1990). Animal Species for Developmental Studies: The Starfish Asterina pectinifera. Springer US. pp. 287–311. doi:10.1007/978-1-4613-0503-3. ISBN 978-1-4612-7839-9. S2CID 42046815.

^ Friedman, Rachel S. C.; Krause, Diane S. (2009). “Regeneration and repair: new findings in stem cell research and ageing”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1172 (1): 88–94. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04411.x. PMID 19735242. S2CID 755324.

^ Ted Ranosa (19 June 2015). “Starfish Shows Off Strange Ability To Expel Foreign Objects Through Skin”. Tech Times, Science. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016.

^ “William Jenkyn Thomas, M.A”. The Aberdare Boys’ Grammar School. Retrieved 12 May 2013.

^ Thomas, William Jenkyn (1943). Some Myths and Legends of the Australian Aborigines. Whitcombe & Tombs. pp. 21–28.

^ Tregear, Edward (1900). “”The Creation Song” of Hawaii”. The Journal of the Polynesian Society. 9 (1): 38–46.

Jump up to:

a b Rumphius, Georgious Everhardus (= Georg Eberhard Rumpf); Beekman, E.M. (trans.) (1999) [1705]. The Ambonese Curiosity Cabinet (original title: Amboinsche Rariteitkamer). Yale University Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-300-07534-2.

^ Watts, Peter (2008). Starfish (Rifters Trilogy). Tor.

^ Orbell, Jennie (2012). Starfish. Tedge Press.

^ Addison, Alice (2012). Starfish – a year in the life of bereavement and depression. Chipmunkapublishing.

^ Brafman, Ori; Beckstrom, Rod (2006). The Starfish and the Spider: The Unstoppable Power of Leaderless Organizations. Penguin. ISBN 978-1-59184-183-8.

^ “SpongeBob SquarePants”. Patrick. Nickelodeon. 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2013.

^ Lin SJ, Hwang DF; Hwang (April 2001). “Possible source of tetrodotoxin in the starfish Astropecten scoparius”. Toxicon. 39(4): 573–9. doi:10.1016/S0041-0101(00)00171-9. PMID 11024497.

^ Asakawa, M.; Nishimura, F.; Miyazawa, K.; Noguchi, T. (1997). “Occurrence of paralytic shellfish poison in the starfish Asterias amurensis in Kure Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan”. Toxicon. 35(7): 1081–1087. doi:10.1016/S0041-0101(96)00216-4. PMID 9248006.

^ “Indulging in Exotic Cuisine in Beijing”. The China Guide. 2011. Archived from the original on 3 March 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2014.

^ Amakusa TV Co. Ltd. (7 August 2011). “Cooking Starfish in Japan”. ebook10005. Amakusa TV. Retrieved 18 May 2013.

^ “Pouch A” (in Japanese). Kenko.com. Archived from the original on 3 August 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2013.

^ Johannes, Robert Earle (1981). Words of the Lagoon: Fishing and Marine Lore in the Palau District of Micronesia. University of California Press. pp. 87.

^ Bos, A. R.; Gumanao, G. S.; Alipoyo, J. C. E.; Cardona, L. T. (2008). “Population dynamics, reproduction and growth of the Indo-Pacific horned sea star, Protoreaster nodosus(Echinodermata; Asteroidea)”. Marine Biology. 156 (1): 55–63. doi:10.1007/s00227-008-1064-2. S2CID 84521816.

^ “Starfish”. Larva Labs. Archived from the original on 28 July 2014. Retrieved 10 May 2013.

^ Starfish Associates LLC (2005–2013). “Starfish”. Starfish Associates. Retrieved 10 May 2013.

^ “Motorola to Acquire Starfish”. Motorola. 14 July 1998. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 11 May 2013. (See also Starfish Software.)

^ “Starfish”. Duke Startup Challenge. Duke University. Archived from the original on 7 March 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2013.

^ “Starfish”. Starfish Seabed Imaging Systems. 2013. Archived from the original on 20 January 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2013.

^ Manning, T. D. (Captain) (1961). The British Destroyer. Godfrey Cave Associates. ISBN 978-0-906223-13-0.

^ “Admiralty R-class destroyers (1915–1917)”. Royal Navy History. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2013.

^ “HM Submarine Starfish”. Submarines: Chatham built. 1 July 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.

^ Crowdy, Terry (2008). Deceiving Hitler: double cross and deception in World War II. Osprey Publishing. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-84603-135-9.

^ Dyal, P. (10 December 1965). “Operation Dominic. Fish Bowl Series. Debris Expansion Experiment” (PDF). Report ADA995428. Air Force Weapons Laboratory. Retrieved 11 May2013.

ACORN

 Harper, Douglas. “acorn”. Online Etymology Dictionary.

^ One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). “Acorn“. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 152–153. This cites the New English Dictionary, now the Oxford English Dictionary

^ “Online Etymology Dictionary”. www.etymonline.com. Retrieved 15 April2017.

^ Plumb, Timothy R., ed. (1980). Proceedings of the symposium on the ecology, management, and utilization of California oaks, June 26–28(PDF). USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-044. pp. 1 to 368. ASIN B000PMY1P8.

^ King, Richie S. (2 December 2011). “After Lean Acorn Crop in Northeast, Even People May Feel the Effects”. The New York Times. Retrieved 4 December 2011. there is nothing unusual about large fluctuations in the annual number of acorns.

^ “Acorn Study | Research | Upland Hardwood Ecology and Management | SRS”. www.srs.fs.usda.gov. Retrieved 4 September 2020.

^ “Acorns fatally poison 50 ponies in English forest”. Horsetalk.co.nz. 27 November 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2017.

^ “ACORN POISONING – Are Acorns Poisonous To Horses?”. Horse-advice.com. Retrieved 6 January 2017.

^ “Acorns, Oaks and Horses: Tannin Poisoning”. The Way of Horses. 15 September 2002. Retrieved 6 January 2017.

^ Barrett, Reginald H. (1980). “Mammals of California Oak Habitats-Management Implications” (PDF). In Plumb, Timothy R. (ed.). Proceedings of the symposium on the ecology, management, and utilization of California oaks, June 26–28. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-044. pp. 276–291.

^ “A bumper crop of acorns causes concern for those with horses”. Countryfile.com. Immediate Media Company. 19 October 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2014.

Jump up to:

a b Barringer, Sam. “Acorns Can be Deadly”. West Virginia University Extension Service. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.

^ Brown, Leland R. (1979) Insects Feeding on California Oak Treesin Proceedings of the Symposium on Multiple-Use Management of California’s Hardwood Resources, Timothy Plum and Norman Pillsbury (eds.).

^ “Nutrition Facts for Acorn Flour”. Nutritiondata.com. Retrieved 6 January2017.

^ 1950-, Tull, Delena (1987). A practical guide to edible & useful plants : including recipes, harmful plants, natural dyes & textile fibers. Austin, Tex.: Texas Monthly Press. ISBN 9780877190226. OCLC 15015652.

^ “Two Ways to Make Cold Leached Acorn Flour – Learn How with this Guide”. The Spruce. Retrieved 24 December 2017.

^ Janzen, Daniel H. (1971), Richard F. Johnson, Peter W. Frank and Charles Michner (ed.), “Seed Predation by Animals”, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 2: 465–492, doi:10.1146/annurev.es.02.110171.002341, JSTOR 2096937

^ “Indigenous Food and Traditional Recipes”. NativeTech. Retrieved 6 January 2017.

^ “Cooking With Acorns”. Siouxme.com. Retrieved 6 January 2017.

^ Bainbridge, D. A. (12–14 November 1986), Use of acorns for food in California: past, present and future, San Luis Obispo, CA.: Symposium on Multiple-use Management of California’s Hardwoods, archived from the original on 27 October 2010, retrieved 1 September 2010

^ Junko Habu; Habu Junko (29 July 2004). Ancient Jomon of Japan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77670-7.

^ Alphonso, Christina (5 November 2015). “Acres of Acorns”. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, i.e. The Met Museum. Retrieved 15 April 2017.

^ Derby, Jeanine A. (1980). “Acorns-Food for Modern Man” (PDF). In Plumb, Timothy R. (ed.). Proceedings of the symposium on the ecology, management, and utilization of California oaks, June 26–28. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-044. pp. 360–361.

^ Suttles, Wayne (1964), “(Review of) Ecological Determinants of Aboriginal California Populations, by Martin A. Baumhoff”, American Anthropologist, 66(3): 676, doi:10.1525/aa.1964.66.3.02a00360

^ Prichep, Deena (2 November 2014). “Nutritious Acorns Don’t Have To Just Be Snacks For Squirrels”. The Salt : NPR. Retrieved 3 November 2014.

^ “National Trail Acorn”. National Trails. Retrieved 9 October 2010.

^ “University of Connecticut”. Archived from the original on 4 November 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2010.

Brontosaurus

 “Brontosaurus”. Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved January 21, 2016.

^ “Brontosaurus”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved January 21, 2016.

Jump up to:

a b c d e f g Riggs, E. S. (August 1903). “Structure and Relationships of Opisthocoelian Dinosaurs. Part I, ApatosaurusMarsh” (PDF). Publications of the Field Columbian Museum Geographical Series. 2 (4): 165–196. OCLC 494478078.

Jump up to:

a b c d e f g h i j Tschopp, E.; Mateus, O. V.; Benson, R. B. J. (2015). “A specimen-level phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision of Diplodocidae (Dinosauria, Sauropoda)”. PeerJ. 3: e857. doi:10.7717/peerj.857. PMC 4393826. PMID 25870766.open access

Jump up to:

a b Foster, J. (2007). Jurassic West: The Dinosaurs of the Morrison Formation and Their World. Indiana University Press. 389pp.

Jump up to:

a b c Paul, Gregory S. (2010). Princeton Field Guide to Dinosaurs. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-13720-9.

Jump up to:

a b Fastovsky, D. E.; Weishampel, D. B. (2009). Dinosaurs: A Concise Natural History (PDF). Cambridge University Press. pp. 165–200. ISBN 978-0-521-88996-4.

Jump up to:

a b c d e f Gilmore, C. W. (February 1936). “Osteology of Apatosaurus, with special references to specimens in the Carnegie Museum”. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum. 11 (4): 1–136. OCLC 16777126.

Jump up to:

a b Lovelace, D. M.; Hartman, S. A.; Wahl, W. R. (2007). “Morphology of a specimen of Supersaurus (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from the Morrison Formation of Wyoming, and a re-evaluation of diplodocid phylogeny”. Arquivos do Museu Nacional. 65 (4): 527–544. ISSN 0365-4508.

^ Martin, A. J. (2006). Introduction to the Study of Dinosaurs (Second ed.). Blackwell Publishing. p. 560. ISBN 978-1-4051-3413-2. ASIN 1405134135.

Jump up to:

a b Upchurch, P. (1994). “Manus claw function in sauropod dinosaurs” (PDF). Gaia. 10: 161–171. ISSN 0871-5424.

^ Marsh, O. C. (1879). “Notice of new Jurassic reptiles” (PDF). American Journal of Science. 18: 501–505. doi:10.2475/ajs.s3-18.108.501. S2CID 131001110.

^ Liddell, G. H.; Scott, R. (1882). A Greek-English Lexicon. Harper & Brothers. pp. 1–1774.

^ Mahoney, K. D. (2015). “Latin Definitions for: excelsus (Latin search)”. LatDict Latin Dictionary and Grammar Resources.

^ Moon, B. (2010). “The Sauropod Dinosaurs of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic, USA): A Review”. Dinosauria: 1–9. Archived from the original on January 28, 2015.

Jump up to:

a b c d Miller, B. (October 30, 2014). “Bully for Camarasaurus. Dinosours.

Jump up to:

a b c Parsons, K. M. (1997). “The Wrongheaded Dinosaur”. Carnegie Magazine. Archived from the original on April 14, 2010.

Jump up to:

a b Norell, M.A., Gaffney, E.S., & Dingus, L. (1995). Discovering Dinosaurs in the American Museum of Natural History. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.

^ Bakker, R. T. (1994). “The Bite of the Bronto”. Earth. 3 (6): 26–33. Archived from the original on February 9, 2015.

Jump up to:

a b McIntosh, J. S.; Berman, D. S. (1975). “Description of the Palate and Lower Jaw of the Sauropod Dinosaur Diplodocus(Reptilia: Saurischia) with Remarks on the Nature of the Skull of Apatosaurus“. Journal of Paleontology. 49 (1): 187–199. JSTOR 1303324.

^ Carpenter, Kenneth; Tidwell, Virginia (1998). “Preliminary Description of a Brachiosaurus Skull from Felch Quarry 1, Garden Park, Colorado”. In Carpenter, Kenneth; Chure, Dan; Kirkland, James Ian (eds.). The Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation: an interdisciplinary study. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-90-5699-183-8.

^ Barrett, P. M.; Storrs, G. W.; Young, M. T.; Witmer, L. M. (2011). “A new skull of Apatosaurus and its taxonomic and palaeobiological implications” (PDF). Symposium of Vertebrate Palaeontology & Comparative Anatomy Abstracts of Presentations: 5.

^ Taylor, M. P. (2010). “Sauropod dinosaur research: a historical review” (PDF). Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 343 (1): 361–386. Bibcode:2010GSLSP.343..361T. doi:10.1144/SP343.22. S2CID 910635.

^ Brinkman, P. (2006). “Bully for Apatosaurus“. Endeavour. 30 (4): 126–130. doi:10.1016/j.endeavour.2006.10.004. PMID 17097734.

^ Upchurch, P.; Barrett, P. M.; Dodson, P. (2004). “Sauropoda”. In Weishampel, D. B.; Osmólska, H.; Dodson, P. (eds.). The Dinosauria (2 ed.). University of California Press. pp. 259–322.

^ McIntosh, J. S. (1995). A. Sun; Y. Wang (eds.). “Remarks on the North American sauropod Apatosaurus Marsh”. Sixth Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota Short Papers: 119–123.

^ Bakker, R. T. (1998). “Dinosaur mid-life crisis: the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition in Wyoming and Colorado”. In Lucas, Spencer G.; Kirkland, James I.; Estep, J. W. (eds.). Lower and Middle Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems. 14. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. pp. 67–77.

Jump up to:

a b D’Emic, M. 2015. “Not so fast, Brontosaurus”. Time.com

Jump up to:

a b Prothero, D. 2015. “Is “Brontosaurus” Back? Not So Fast!”. Skeptic.com.

^ Marsh, O. C. (December 1877). “Notice of New Dinosaurian Reptiles from the Jurassic formation” (PDF). American Journal of Science. 14 (84): 514–516. Bibcode:1877AmJS…14..514M. doi:10.2475/ajs.s3-14.84.514. S2CID 130488291.

Jump up to:

a b c d e Upchurch, P.; Tomida, Y.; Barrett, P. M. (2005). “A new specimen of Apatosaurus ajax (Sauropoda: Diplodocidae) from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Wyoming, USA”. National Science Museum Monographs. 26 (118): 1–156. ISSN 1342-9574.

Jump up to:

a b Gorman, James (April 7, 2015). “A Prehistoric Giant Is Revived, if Only in Name”. The New York Times. Retrieved April 7, 2015.

^ Choi, Charles. “The Brontosaurus Is Back”. Scientific American. Retrieved December 18, 2019.

Jump up to:

a b Turner, C.E. and Peterson, F., (1999). “Biostratigraphy of dinosaurs in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of the Western Interior, U.S.A.” Pp. 77–114 in Gillette, D. D. (ed.), Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah. Utah Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publication 99-1.

^ Holtz, Thomas R. Jr. (2011) Dinosaurs: The Most Complete, Up-to-Date Encyclopedia for Dinosaur Lovers of All Ages, Winter 2010 Appendix.

^ Filla, J.A., Redman, P.D. (1994). “Apatosaurus yahnahpin: a preliminary description of a new species of diplodocid dinosaur from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation of southern Wyoming, the first sauropod found with a complete set of “belly ribs”.” Wyoming Geological Association, 44th Annual Field Conference Guidebook. 159–178.

^ Bakker, R.T. (1998). “Dinosaur mid-life crisis: the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition in Wyoming and Colorado”. In: S.G. Lucas, J.I. Kirkland, & J.W. Estep (eds.) Lower and Middle Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems; New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 14: 67–77.

Jump up to:

a b Pierson, D. J. (2009). “The Physiology of Dinosaurs: Circulatory and Respiratory Function in the Largest Animals Ever to Walk the Earth”. Respiratory Care. 54 (7): 887–911. doi:10.4187/002013209793800286. PMID 19558740.

^ Stevens, Kent A.; Parrish, J. M. (1999). “Neck Posture and Feeding Habits of Two Jurassic Sauropod Dinosaurs”. Science. 284 (5415): 798–800. Bibcode:1999Sci…284..798S. doi:10.1126/science.284.5415.798. PMID 10221910. Retrieved August 3, 2008.

^ Taylor, M. P. (2014). “Quantifying the effect of intervertebral cartilage on neutral posture in the necks of sauropod dinosaurs”. PeerJ. 2: e712. doi:10.7717/peerj.712. PMC 4277489. PMID 25551027.

^ Sellers, W. I.; Margetts, L.; Coria, R. A.; Manning, P. L. (2012). “March of the Titans: The Locomotor Capabilities of Sauropod Dinosaurs”. PLOS ONE. 8 (10): e78733. Bibcode:2013PLoSO…878733S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078733. PMC 3864407. PMID 24348896.

^ Spotila, J. R.; O’Connor, M. P.; Dodson, P. R.; Paladino, F. V. (1991). “Hot and cold running dinosaurs. Metabolism, body temperature, and migration”. Modern Geology. 16: 203–227.

^ Wedel, M. J. (2003). “Vertebral Pneumaticity, Air Sacs, and the Physiology of Sauropod Dinosaurs”. Paleobiology. 29 (2): 243–255. doi:10.1666/0094-8373(2003)029<0243:vpasat>2.0.co;2. JSTOR 4096832.

^ Zimmer, C. (November 1997). “Dinosaurs in Motion”. Discover. Retrieved July 27, 2008.

^ Trujillo, K. C.; Chamberlain, K. R.; Strickland, A. (2006). “Oxfordian U/Pb ages from SHRIMP analysis for the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of southeastern Wyoming with implications for biostratigraphic correlations”. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 38 (6): 7.

^ Bilbey, S. A. (1998). “Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry – age, stratigraphy and depositional environments”. In Carpenter, K.; Chure, D.; Kirkland, J. I. (eds.). The Morrison Formation: An Interdisciplinary Study. Modern Geology 22. Taylor and Francis Group. pp. 87–120. ISSN 0026-7775.

^ Russell, Dale A. (1989). An Odyssey in Time: Dinosaurs of North America. Minocqua, Wisconsin: NorthWord Press. pp. 64–70. ISBN 978-1-55971-038-1.

^ Mateus, Octávio (2006). “Jurassic dinosaurs from the Morrison Formation (USA), the Lourinhã and Alcobaça Formations (Portugal), and the Tendaguru Beds (Tanzania): A comparison”. In Foster, John R.; Lucas, Spencer G. (eds.). Paleontology and Geology of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 36. Albuquerque, New Mexico: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. pp. 223–231.

^ Dodson, Peter; Behrensmeyer, A.K.; Bakker, Robert T.; McIntosh, John S. (1980). “Taphonomy and paleoecology of the dinosaur beds of the Jurassic Morrison Formation”. Paleobiology. 6 (2): 208–232. doi:10.1017/S009483730000676X.

Jump up to:

a b Foster, John (2007). Jurassic West: The Dinosaurs of the Morrison Formation and Their World. Indiana University Press. pp. 273–329. ISBN 978-0-253-34870-8.

^ Chure, Daniel J.; Litwin, Ron; Hasiotis, Stephen T.; Evanoff, Emmett; Carpenter, Kenneth (2006). “The fauna and flora of the Morrison Formation: 2006”. In Foster, John R.; Lucas, Spencer G. (eds.). Paleontology and Geology of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 36. Albuquerque, New Mexico: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. pp. 233–248.

^ Carpenter, Kenneth (2006). “Biggest of the big: a critical re-evaluation of the mega-sauropod Amphicoelias fragillimus“. In Foster, John R.; Lucas, Spencer G. (eds.). Paleontology and Geology of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 36. Albuquerque, New Mexico: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. pp. 131–138.

^ Donald Crafton (1982). Before Mickey: The Animated Film 1898–1928. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-03083-0.

^ “Dinos Parade across the Silver Screen”. San Diego Natural History Museum. Archived from the original on October 11, 2011.

^ Glut, Donald F.; Brett-Surman, Michael K. (1997). “Dinosaurs and the media”. In Farlow, James; Brett-Surman, Michael K. (eds.). The Complete Dinosaur. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 675–706. ISBN 978-0-253-33349-0.

Jump up to:

a b c d Gould, S. J. (1991). Bully for Brontosaurus: Reflections in Natural History. W. W. Norton & Co. pp. 540pp.

^ “Evolution of the Company Symbol”. Sinclair Oil Corporation. 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2014.

^ “Topics of The Times: Leapin’ Lizards!”. The New York Times. October 11, 1989. Retrieved June 8, 2008.

^ Larimore, Rachael (April 7, 2015). “Dino-Mite! Study Suggests That the Brontosaurus Really Did Exist”. Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved June 18, 2015.

^ “Why Do We Love the Brontosaurus?”. The New Yorker. Retrieved June 18, 2015.

^ Laden, Greg (April 8, 2015). “Bully for Brontosaurus”. Greg Laden’s Blog. Science. 348 (6231): 168. Bibcode:2015Sci…348..168B. doi:10.1126/science.348.6231.168. PMID 25859023. Retrieved June 18, 2015.

^ Wedel, Matt (April 7, 2015). “Welcome back, Brontosaurus! And other first thoughts on Tschopp et al. (2015)”. Sauropod Vertebra Picture of the Week. Retrieved June 18, 2015.

^ “Did You Ever Think You’d See The Day? The Brontosaurus Exists Once Again!”. perezhilton.com. April 7, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.

^ Callaway, Ewen (April 7, 2015). “Beloved Brontosaurus makes a comeback”. Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2015.17257. Retrieved June 18, 2015.

^ “Brontosaurus is back! Brontosaurus is a unique genus after all”. Science Daily. PeerJ. April 7, 2015. Retrieved June 18,2015.

^ Devlin, Hannah (April 7, 2015). “Brontosaurus is back! New analysis suggests genus might be resurrected”. Science. The Guardian. Retrieved June 18, 2015.

Daisy

 The source The Plant List used was the International Compositae Alliance. Bellis perennis L.” The Plant List; Version 1. (published on the internet). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden. 2010. Retrieved November 12, 2012.

Jump up to:

a b Bellis perennis Linnaeus”. Flora of North America.

^ PLANTS Profile., “Bellis perennis L. lawndaisy”, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=bepe2

^ Stace, C. A. (2010). New Flora of the British Isles (Third ed.). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. p. 749. ISBN 9780521707725.

^ Parnell, J. and Curtis. 2012. Webb’s An Irish Flora. Cork University Press ISBN 978-1-85918-478-3

Jump up to:

a b c “Bellis perennis L.” Missouri Botanical Garden Bellis perennis.

Jump up to:

a b “Bellis perennis L”. Plants for a Future database.

^ “USDA Zones”. USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map. Archived from the original on 2014-02-27. Retrieved 2012-05-02.

^ “USDA Plants Profile for Bellis perennis (lawndaisy)”. usda.gov.

^ WARWICK, S. I.; BRIGGS, D. (September 1979). “The Genecology of Lawn Weeds”. New Phytologist. 83 (2): 509–536. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1979.tb07616.x. ISSN 0028-646X.

^ “daisy facts, information, pictures – Encyclopedia.com articles about daisy”. www.encyclopedia.com.

^ The Plant-Lore and Garden-Craft of Shakespeare, by Henry Nicholson Ellacombe. W. Satchell and Company, London, 1884

^ Nowick, Elaine (2014). Historical Common Names of Great Plains Plants, with Scientific Names Index: Volume II: Scientific Names Index. Lulu.com. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-60962-060-8.

^ “Daisy.” The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed., 2011. Encyclopedia.com

^ Johanna Budwig, Krebs – ein Fettproblem, richtige Wahl und Verwendung der Fette. Hyperion-Verlag, Freiburg im Breisgau 1956, p. 44: recipe for cancer patients.

^ Howard, Michael. Traditional Folk Remedies (Century, 1987), p129

^ “Children’s ‘right to play'”. BBC News. BBC. 2002-08-07. Retrieved 2008-11-02.

Bee

 Brown, Lesley; Stevenson, Angus (2007). Shorter Oxford English dictionary on historical principles. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. p. 309. ISBN 978-0-19-923325-0.

^ Wiktionary entry for “bombus”

^ Wedgwood, Hensleigh (1855). “On False Etymologies”. Transactions of the Philological Society (6): 67.

^ “bumble-bee, n”. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 29 May 2011.

^ “humble-bee, n”. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 29 May 2011.

^ Shakespeare, William (1 July 2000). A Midsummer Night’s Dream by William Shakespeare – Project Gutenberg. Gutenberg.org.

^ “WikiLing – ahd”. koeblergerhard.de. Retrieved 2 April 2019.

Jump up to:

a b “Dumbledor”. Merriam–Webster. 1913. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015.

^ Darwin, Charles (1 March 1998). On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection, or, the Preservation of – Project Gutenberg. Gutenberg.org.

^ Jones, Richard (1 August 2010). “How the humblebee became the bumblebee”. The Guardian. London.

Jump up to:

a b c d Cardinal, Sophie; Danforth, Bryan N. (June 2011). “The Antiquity and Evolutionary History of Social Behavior in Bees”. PLOS ONE. 6 (6): e21086. Bibcode:2011PLoSO…621086C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021086. PMC 3113908. PMID 21695157.

^ Romiguier, J.; Cameron, S.A.; Woodard, S.H.; Fischman, B.J.; Keller, L.; Praz, C.J. (2015). “Phylogenomics controlling for base compositional bias reveals a single origin of eusociality in corbiculate bees”. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 33 (3): 670–678. doi:10.1093/molbev/msv258. PMID 26576851.

Jump up to:

a b Wappler, Torsten; De Meulemeester, Thibaut; Aytekin, A. Murat; Michez, Denis; Engel, Michael S. (2012). “Geometric morphometric analysis of a new Miocene bumble bee from the Randeck Maar of southwestern Germany (Hymenoptera: Apidae)”. Systematic Entomology. 37 (4): 784–792. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2012.00642.x. S2CID 84979697.[permanent dead link]

^ Dehon, Manuel; Michez, Denis; Nel, Andre; Engel, Michael S.; De Meulemeester, Thibaut (2014). “Wing Shape of Four New Bee Fossils (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) Provides Insights to Bee Evolution”. PLOS ONE. 9 (10): e108865. Bibcode:2014PLoSO…9j8865D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108865. PMC 4212905. PMID 25354170.

^ “†Oligobombus Antropov 2014 (bee)”. FossilWorks. Retrieved 20 February 2015.

^ Antropov, A. V.; et al. (2014). “The wasps, bees and ants (Insecta: Vespida=Hymenoptera) from the Insect Limestone (Late Eocene) of the Isle of Wight” (PDF). Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 104 (3–4): 335–446. doi:10.1017/S1755691014000103.

^ Prokop, J.; Dehon, M.; Michez, D.; Engel, M. S. (2017). “An Early Miocene bumble bee from northern Bohemia (Hymenoptera, Apidae)”. ZooKeys (710): 43–63. doi:10.3897/zookeys.710.14714. PMC 5674177. PMID 29118643.

^ Williams, Paul H. (1998). “An annotated checklist of bumble bees with an analysis of patterns of description”. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum, Entomology Series. 67: 79–152. Retrieved 30 May 2012.

Jump up to:

a b Williams, Paul; Cameron, Sydney A.; Hines, Heather M.; Cederberg, Bjorn; Rasmont, Pierre (2008). “A simplified subgeneric classification of the bumblebees (genus Bombus)”(PDF). Apidologie. 39: 46–74. doi:10.1051/apido:2007052. S2CID 3489618.

^ “The differences between bumblebees and honeybees”. Bumblebee Conservation Trust. Archived from the original on 28 February 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015.

^ Wild, Alex (11 October 2011). “How to tell the difference between honey bees and bumble bees”. Myrmecos.

^ “Bumblebee species”. Bumblebee.org. Retrieved 23 February2015.

^ Johnston, Ian (6 July 2014). “Bye bye big bee: In South America, the world’s largest bumblebee is at risk from imported rivals”. The Independent.

^ “Map at: Bumblebees of the world”. Natural History Museum. Retrieved 9 July 2007.

^ Milliron, H. E.; Oliver, D. R. (1966). “Bumblebees from northern Ellesmere Island, with observations on usurpation by Megabombus hyperboreus (Schönh.)”. Canadian Entomologist. 98 (2): 207–213. doi:10.4039/Ent98207-2.

Jump up to:

a b Heinrich, B. (1981). Insect Thermoregulation. Krieger Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-471-05144-2.

^ Dillon, Michael E; Dudley, Robert (February 2014). “Surpassing Mt. Everest: extreme flight performance of alpine bumble-bees”. Biology Letters. 10 (2): 20130922. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2013.0922. PMC 3949368. PMID 24501268.

^ “Genus Bombus – Bumble Bees”. BugGuide.Net. Retrieved 12 February 2015.

^ Harder, L.D. (1986). “Effects of nectar concentration and flower depth on flower handling efficiency of bumble bees”. Oecologia. 69 (2): 309–315. Bibcode:1986Oecol..69..309H. doi:10.1007/BF00377639. PMID 28311376. S2CID 30088277.

^ Heinrich, Bernd (2004). Bumblebee Economics. Harvard University Press. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-674-01639-2.

^ Newman, Daniel A.; Thomson, James D.; Ranta, Esa (2005). “Effects of nectar robbing on nectar dynamics and bumblebee foraging strategies in Linaria vulgaris (Scrophulariaceae)”. Okies. 10 (2): 309–320. doi:10.1111/j.0030-1299.2005.13884.x. JSTOR 3548471.

Jump up to:

a b “The bumblebee body”. Bumblebee.org. Retrieved 12 February 2015.

^ Williams, Paul H. (2007). “The distribution of bumblebee colour patterns world-wide: possible significance for thermoregulation, crypsis, and warning mimicry”. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 92 (1): 97–118. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2007.00878.x.

Jump up to:

a b Thorp, Robbin W.; Horning, Donald S.; Dunning, Lorry L. (1983). Bumble Bees and Cuckoo Bumble Bees of California (Hymenoptera, Apidae). University of California Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-520-09645-5.

^ Williams, Paul H. (2008). “Do the parasitic Psithyrus resemble their host bumblebees in colour pattern?” (PDF). Apidologie. 39(6): 637–649. doi:10.1051/apido:2008048. S2CID 27702692.

Jump up to:

a b Macdonald, 2003. p. 6

^ Peat, J.; Darvill, B.; Ellis, J.; Goulson, D. (2005). “Effects of climate on intra- and interspecific size variation in bumble-bees”. Ecology. 19: 145–151. doi:10.1111/j.0269-8463.2005.00946.x.

^ “Bumblebee wings”. Bumblebee.org. Retrieved 14 February2015.

^ Goller, Franz; Esch, Harald (May 1990). “Comparative Study of Chill-Coma Temperatures and Muscle Potentials in Insect Flight Muscles”. Journal of Experimental Biology. 150 (1): 221–231.

^ Dornhaus, Anna; Chittka, Lars (2001). “Food alert in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris): possible mechanisms and evolutionary implications”. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 50 (6): 570–576. doi:10.1007/s002650100395. S2CID 46168842.

^ Dornhaus, Anna; Chittka, Lars (2005). “Bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) store both food and information in honeypots”. Behavioral Ecology. 16 (3): 661–666. doi:10.1093/beheco/ari040.

^ Loukola, Olli J.; Perry, Clint J.; Coscos, Louie; Chittka, Lars (24 February 2017). “Bumblebees show cognitive flexibility by improving on an observed complex behavior”. Science. 355(6327): 833–836. Bibcode:2017Sci…355..833L. doi:10.1126/science.aag2360. PMID 28232576. S2CID 206651162.

^ Watson, Traci (2017). “Bees learn football from their buddies”. Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2017.21540. S2CID 152110899.

Jump up to:

a b “Bumblebee nests”. Bumblebee Conservation Trust. Archived from the original on 22 September 2017. Retrieved 13 February 2015.

^ Cueva del Castillo, R; Sanabria-Urbán, S.; Serrano-Meneses, M. A. (2015). “Trade-offs in the evolution of bumblebee colony and body size: a comparative analysis”. Ecology and Evolution. 5 (18): 3914–3926. doi:10.1002/ece3.1659. PMC 4588658. PMID 26445652.

Jump up to:

a b c d Goulson, 2013. pp. 16–24

^ Lye, Gillian C.; Osborne, Juliet L.; Park, Kirsty J.; Goulson, Dave (November 2011). “Using citizen science to monitor Bombuspopulations in the UK: nesting ecology and relative abundance in the urban environment”. Journal of Insect Conservation. 16 (5): 697–707. doi:10.1007/s10841-011-9450-3. S2CID 3956485.

^ “The Bumblebee Lifecycle”. Bumblebee Conservation Trust. Retrieved 11 February 2015.

^ “Bombus pensylvanicus”. University of Wisconsin La Crosse. 2013.

^ Juan Di Trani de la Hoz (2006). “Phenology of Bombus pennsylvanicus sonorus Say (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Central Mexico”. Neotropical Entomology. 35 (5): 588–95. doi:10.1590/S1519-566X2006000500004. PMID 17144129.

^ ‘Nest of the Common Humble-Bee (B. terrestris)’, Plate 15 from The Naturalist’s Library, Vol. VI. Entomology, by Sir William Jardine. Edinburgh: W. H. Lizars, 1840

Jump up to:

a b “Biology”. Biobees Bumblebee Pollination. Retrieved 13 February 2015.

^ Evans, Elaine; Burns, Ian; Spivak, Marla (2007). Befriending Bumble Bees. St. Paul: University of Minnesota Press.

^ Goulson, 2013. pp. 108–114

^ Van Honk, C. G. J.; Velthuis, H. H. W.; Röseler, P.-F.; Malotaux, M. E. (1980). “The mandibular glands of Bombus terrestrisqueens as a source of queen pheromones”. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 28 (2): 191–198. doi:10.1007/BF00287128.

Jump up to:

a b Zanette, L. R.; Miller, S. D.; Faria, C. M.; Almond, E. J.; Huggins, T. J.; Jordan, W. C.; Bourke, A. F. (December 2012). “Reproductive conflict in bumblebees and the evolution of worker policing”. Evolution. 66 (12): 3765–3777. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01709.x. PMID 23206135. S2CID 36787898.

^ Fletcher, D. J. C.; Fletcher, Ross K. (1985). “Regulation of reproduction in eusocial Hymenoptera”. Annual Review of Entomology. 30: 319–343. doi:10.1146/annurev.en.30.010185.001535.

^ Cameron, S.D (1998). “Mediators of dominance and reproductive success among queens in the cyclically polygynous neotropical bumble bee Bombus atratus Franklin” (PDF). Insectes Sociaux. 45 (2): 135–149. doi:10.1007/s000400050075. S2CID 11849676.

^ Walther-Hellwig, K.; Frankl, R. (2000). “Foraging distances of Bombus muscorum, Bombus lapidarius, and Bombus terrestris(Hymenoptera, Apidae)”. Journal of Insect Behavior. 13 (2): 239–246. doi:10.1023/A:1007740315207. S2CID 29303814.

^ Dramstad, W. E.; Fry, G. L. A.; Schaffer, M. J. (2003). “Bumblebee foraging—is closer really better?”. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 95 (1): 349–357. doi:10.1016/S0167-8809(02)00043-9.

^ Osborne, J. L.; Clark, S. J.; Morris, R. J.; Williams, I. H.; Riley, J. R.; Smith, A. D.; Reynolds, D. R.; Edwards, A. S. (1999). “A landscape-scale study of bumble bee foraging range and constancy, using harmonic radar”. Journal of Applied Ecology. 36 (4): 519–533. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2664.1999.00428.x.

^ Blackawton, P. S.; Airzee, S.; Allen, A.; Baker, S.; Berrow, A.; Blair, C.; Churchill, M.; Coles R. F.-J.; Cumming, L.; et al. (2010). Fraquelli, C. Hackford, A. Hinton Mellor, M. Hutchcroft, B. Ireland, J.; Jewsbury, D.; Littlejohns, A.; Littlejohns, G. M.; Lotto, M.; McKeown, J.; O’Toole, A.; Richards, H.; Robbins-Davey, L.; Roblyn, S.; Rodwell-Lynn, H.; Schenck, D.; Springer, J.; Wishy, A.; Rodwell-Lynn, T.; Strudwick, D.; Lotto, R. B. “Blackawton bees”. Biology Letters. 7 (2): 168–72. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.1056. PMC 3061190. PMID 21177694.

^ Clarke, D.; Whitney, H.; Sutton, G.; Robert, D. (2013). “Detection and Learning of Floral Electric Fields by Bumblebees”. Science. 340 (6128): 66–9. Bibcode:2013Sci…340…66C. doi:10.1126/science.1230883. PMID 23429701. S2CID 23742599. Lay summaryNature News & Comment(21 February 2013).

^ Whitney, H.; Dyer, A.; Rands, S.A.; Glover, B.J. (2008). “The interaction of temperature and sucrose concentration on foraging preferences in bumblebees”. Naturwissenschaften. 95 (9): 845–850. Bibcode:2008NW…..95..845W. doi:10.1007/s00114-008-0393-9. PMID 18523748. S2CID 939116.

^ Harrap, M.J.M.; Rands, S.A.; Hempel de Ibarra, N.; Whitney, H.M. (2017). “The diversity of floral temperature patterns, and their use by pollinators”. eLife. 6. doi:10.7554/eLife.31262. PMC 5736352. PMID 29254518.

^ Maloof, J. E. (2001). “The effects of a bumble bee nectar robber on plant reproductive success and pollinator behavior”. American Journal of Botany. 88 (11): 1960–1965. doi:10.2307/3558423. JSTOR 3558423. PMID 21669629. S2CID 33897983.

^ “Bumblebee legs”. Bumblebee.org. Retrieved 18 February2015.

^ Leonard, Anne. “Buzz Pollination”. Retrieved 11 February2015.

^ Goulson, Dave; Hawson, Sadie A.; Stout, Jane C. (1998). “Foraging bumblebees avoid flowers already visited by conspecifics or by other bumblebee species”. Animal Behaviour. 55 (1): 199–206. doi:10.1006/anbe.1997.0570. PMID 9480686. S2CID 2969977.

^ Saleh, Nehal; Scott, Alan G.; Bryning, Gareth P. & Chittka, Lars (2007). “Bumblebees use incidental footprints to generate adaptive behaviour at flowers and nest”. Arthropod-Plant Interactions. 1 (2): 119–127. doi:10.1007/s11829-007-9011-6. S2CID 40995470.

^ Saleh, Nehal; Chittka, Lars (2006). “The importance of experience in the interpretation of conspecific chemical signals”. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 61 (2): 215–220. doi:10.1007/s00265-006-0252-7. S2CID 2052108.

^ Pearce, Richard F.; Giuggioli, Luca; Rands, Sean A. (2017). “Bumblebees can discriminate between scent-marks deposited by conspecifics”. Scientific Reports. 7: 43872. Bibcode:2017NatSR…743872P. doi:10.1038/srep43872. PMC 5339730. PMID 28266572.

^ Saleh, Nehal; Ohashi, Kazuharu; Thomson, James D. & Chittka, Lars (2006). “Facultative use of repellent scent mark in foraging bumblebees: complex versus simple flowers”. Animal Behaviour. 71 (4): 847–854. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2005.06.014. S2CID 53167932.

^ Comba, Livio; Sarah Corbet. “Living larders for bumblebees”. Natural History Museum. Retrieved 20 June 2010.

^ Macdonald, 2003. p. 7

Jump up to:

a b Scherer, C.W. “Fastest Wing Beat”. Book of Insect Records. University of Florida. Retrieved 29 October 2015.

^ “Definition of Asynchronous muscle in the Entomologists’ glossary”. Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University. Retrieved 19 April 2013.

^ Schmidt-Nielsen, Knut (10 April 1997). Animal Physiology: Adaptation and Environment. Cambridge University Press. pp. 290–291. ISBN 978-0-521-57098-5.

Jump up to:

a b c d Erler, S.; Lattorff, H. M. G. (2010). “The degree of parasitism of the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) by cuckoo bumblebees (Bombus (Psithyrus) vestalis)”. Insectes Sociaux. 57(4): 371–377. doi:10.1007/s00040-010-0093-2. S2CID 853556.

^ Peter J.B. Slater; Jay S. Rosenblatt; Charles T. Snowdon; Timothy J. Roper; H. Jane Brockmann; Marc Naguib (30 January 2005). Advances in the Study of Behavior. Academic Press. p. 365. ISBN 978-0-08-049015-1.

^ Pierre Rasmont. “Bombus (Psithyrus) sylvestris (Lepeletier, 1832)”. Université de Mons. Retrieved 6 January 2013.

^ Zimma, B. O.; Ayasse, M.; Tengo, J.; Ibarra, F.; Schulz, C. & Francke, W. (2003). “Do social parasitic bumblebees use chemical weapons? (Hymenoptera, Apidae)”. Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 189 (10): 769–775. doi:10.1007/s00359-003-0451-x. PMID 12955437. S2CID 24441556.

^ Fisher, R.M. (December 1988). “Observations on the Behaviors of Three European Cuckoo Bumble Bee Species (Psithyrus)”. Insectes Sociaux. 35 (4): 341–354. doi:10.1007/BF02225810. S2CID 24071728.

^ Fisher, R. M.; Sampson, B. J. (1992). “Morphological specializations of the bumble bee social parasite Psithyrus ashtoni (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Apidae)”. Canadian Entomologist. 124 (1): 69–77. doi:10.4039/Ent12469-1.

^ Macdonald, 2003. p. 12

^ “Do bumblebees sting? Once or many times?”. Straight Dope. Archived from the original on 30 December 2007. Retrieved 9 July 2007.

^ “Bee Stings, BeeSpotter, University of Illinois”. Beespotter.mste.illinois.edu. Retrieved 25 May 2012.

^ Goulson, 2013. pp. 118–121

^ Goulson, 2013. p. 132

^ Goulson, 2013. p. 126

^ Goulson, 2013. pp. 126–129

^ Cramp, Stanley; et al. (1993). Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. Volume VII: Flycatchers to Shrikes. Oxford: RSPB / Oxford University Press. p. 505. ISBN 978-0-198-57510-8.

^ “Honey Buzzard: Feeding”. Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Retrieved 19 February 2015.

^Parasites fail to halt European bumblebee invasion of the UKArchived 10 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine“, Bumblebee Conservation Trust (retrieved 6 February 2015)

^New study shows how bumblebees can be infected by honeybee diseases Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine“, Bumblebee Conservation Trust (retrieved 6 February 2015)

^ Gambino, Parker (1995). “Dolichovespula (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), Hosts of Aphomia sociella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)”. Journal of the New York Entomological Society. 103(2): 165–169. JSTOR 25010152.

^ “Modelling bee pollination: enter the ‘flight arena'”. Global Food Security. Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. Retrieved 11 February 2015.

^ “NRDC: OnEarth Magazine, Summer 2006 – The Vanishing”. Retrieved 9 July 2007.

^ Goulson, 2013. pp. 169–170

^ Goulson, 2013. pp. 69–70

^ Inoue, Maki N.; Yokoyama, Jun; Washitani, Izumi (2007). “Displacement of Japanese native bumblebees by the recently introduced Bombus terrestris (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae)”. Journal of Insect Conservation. 12 (2): 135–146. doi:10.1007/s10841-007-9071-z. S2CID 33992235.

^ Esterio, Gabriel; Cares-Suárez, Roxana; González-Browne, Catalina; Salinas, Patricia; Carvallo, Gastón; Medel, Rodrigo (2013). “Assessing the impact of the invasive buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) on the pollination of the native Chilean herb Mimulus luteus“. Arthropod-Plant Interactions. 7 (4): 467–474. doi:10.1007/s11829-013-9264-1. hdl:10533/128436. S2CID 2212551.

^ Shao, Z.-Y.; Mao, H.-X.; Fu, W.-J.; Ono, M.; Wang, D.-S.; Bonizzoni, M.; Zhang, Y.-P. (January 2004). “Genetic Structure of Asian Populations of Bombus ignitus (Hymenoptera: Apidae)”. Journal of Heredity. 95 (1): 46–52. doi:10.1093/jhered/esh008. PMID 14757729.

^ Colla, Sheila R.; Otterstatter, Michael C.; Gegear, Robert J.; Thomson, James D. (2006). “Plight of the bumble bee: Pathogen spillover from commercial to wild populations”. Biological Conservation. 129 (4): 461–467. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2005.11.013.

Jump up to:

a b Graystock, Peter; Yates, Kathryn; Evison, Sophie E. F.; Darvill, Ben; Goulson, Dave; Hughes, William O. H. (2013). Osborne, Juliet (ed.). “The Trojan hives: Pollinator pathogens, imported and distributed in bumblebee colonies”. Journal of Applied Ecology. 50 (5): 1207–1215. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.12134. Lay summaryBBC News (18 July 2013).

Jump up to:

a b Goulson, 2013. pp. 169–172

^ Williams, Paul H.; Osborne, Juliet L. (2009). “Bumblebee vulnerability and conservation world-wide” (PDF). Apidologie. 40 (3): 367–387. doi:10.1051/apido/2009025. S2CID 37080850.

^ Goulson, 2013. pp. 4–6

^ Lipa, JJ; Triggiani, O. (1992). “A newly recorded neogregarine (Protozoa, Apicomplexa), parasite in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and bumble bees (Bombus spp.)” (PDF). Adipologie. 23 (6): 533–536. doi:10.1051/apido:19920605.

^ Foucart, Stéphane (16 January 2013). “Pesticides : un risque enfin admis pour les abeilles”. Le Monde.

^ Whitehorn, Penelope R.; O’Connor, Stephanie; Wackers, Felix L.; Goulson, Dave (20 April 2012). “Neonicotinoid pesticide reduces bumble bee colony growth and queen production”. Science. 336 (6079): 351–352. Bibcode:2012Sci…336..351W. doi:10.1126/science.1215025. PMID 22461500. S2CID 2738787.

^ Stanley, Dara A.; Raine, Nigel E. (2017). “Bumblebee colony development following chronic exposure to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid pesticide thiamethoxam under laboratory conditions”. Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 8005. Bibcode:2017NatSR…7.8005S. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-08752-x. PMC 5556064. PMID 28808317.

^ “Bumblebee brains affected by neonicotinoids”. Bumblebee Conservation Trust. 3 February 2014. Archived from the originalon 19 February 2015. New research has emerged from the Universities of Dundee and St. Andrews which shows that accepted environmental levels of neonicotinoids impair bumblebee brain functionality and consequently negatively impact the performance of whole colonies. Research was published in the Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology by Chris Connolly and others.

^ Stanley, Dara (14 March 2016). “Chronic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide alters the interactions between bumblebees and wild plants”. Functional Ecology. 30 (7): 1132–1139. doi:10.1111/1365-2435.12644. PMC 4950133. PMID 27512241.

^ Hazen, Shelley (15 March 2016). “Pesticides Damage Bumblebees’ Pollinating Skills – And That Spells Trouble For Our Food”. Inquistr.

^ Kaae, Richard (nd). “Bees, Wasps and Ants”. Insect & Civilization Part 2. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.

^ University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (28 July 2006). “Scientists map the flight of the bumblebee”. Science Daily.

^ Harman, Alan (July 2003). “Bumblebee Shortage”. Bee Culture. 59.

^ Williams, Paul H. (1986). “Environmental change and the distributions of British bumble bees (Bombus Latr.)”. Bee World. 67 (2): 50–61. doi:10.1080/0005772x.1986.11098871.

^ Fitzpatrick, U.; Murray, T. E.; Byrne, A.; Paxton, R. J.; Brown, M. J. F. (2006). “Regional red list of Irish Bees” (PDF). Report to National Parks and Wildlife Service (Ireland) and Environment and Heritage Service (N. Ireland).[dead link]

Jump up to:

a b “World’s first bumblebee sanctuary creates a buzz”. Geographical. 80 (10): 8. 2008.

^ Miller-Struttmann, Nicole E.; Geib, Jennifer C.; Franklin, James D.; Kevan, Peter G.; Holdo, Ricardo M.; Ebert-May, Diane; Lynn, Austin M.; Kettenbach, Jessica A.; Hedrick, Elizabeth (25 September 2015). “Functional mismatch in a bumble bee pollination mutualism under climate change”. Science. 349(6255): 1541–1544. Bibcode:2015Sci…349.1541M. doi:10.1126/science.aab0868. PMID 26404836. S2CID 46616411.

^ Wong, Lisa; Cameron, Sydney; Favret, Colin; Jennifer, Grixti (2009). “Decline of bumble bees (Bombus) in the North American Midwest”. Biological Conservation. 142: 75–84. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2008.09.027.

^ Flesher, Lohn (10 January 2017). “Rusty Patched Bumblebee Declared Endangered”. ABC News. APNews.

^ “Fact Sheet Rusty Patched Bumble Bee (Bombus affinis)”. Endangered Species. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Retrieved 10 January 2017.

^ “Bumble Bee Conservation”. The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. Retrieved 20 June 2010.

^ Martins, Aline C.; Melo, Gabriel A. R. (2009). “Has the bumblebee Bombus bellicosus gone extinct in the northern portion of its distribution range in Brazil?”. Journal of Insect Conservation. 14 (2): 207–210. doi:10.1007/s10841-009-9237-y. S2CID 31976881.

^ “About us”. Bumblebee Conservation Trust. Retrieved 10 May2014.

^ Barkham, Patrick. “A Sting in the Tale by Dave Goulson – review”. The Guardian (18 May 2013). Retrieved 26 June 2014.

^ Goulson, 2013. pp. 1–14, 227–241

^ “The Short-haired bumblebee reintroduction”. Bumblebee Conservation Trust. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 19 February 2015.

^ “Bumblebee Specialist Group”. London, UK: Natural History Museum. Retrieved 23 December 2013.

^ “2011 Update” (PDF). IUCN. Archived from the original(PDF) on 3 December 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2012.

^ Ivars Peterson (11 September 2004). “Flight of the Bumblebee”. Science News. “the venerable line about scientists having proved that a bumblebee can’t fly appears regularly in magazine and newspaper stories. It’s also the kind of item that can come up in a cocktail party conversation when the subject turns to science or technology. […] Often, the statement is made in a distinctly disparaging tone aimed at putting down those know-it-all scientists and engineers who are so smart yet can’t manage to understand something that’s apparent to everyone else. […] the story has had remarkable staying power, and the myth persists that science says a bumblebee can’t fly. Indeed, this myth has taken on a new life of its own as a piece of “urban folklore” on the Internet.”

Jump up to:

a b “The secrets of bee flight”. Retrieved 12 February 2015.

^ McMasters, John H. (March–April 1989). “The flight of the bumblebee and related myths of entomological engineering”. American Scientist. 77 (2): 146–169. Bibcode:1989AmSci..77..164M. cited in Jay Ingram (2001). The Barmaid’s Brain. Aurum Press. pp. 91–92. ISBN 978-1-85410-633-9.

^ Jay Ingram (2001). The Barmaid’s Brain. Aurum Press. pp. 91–92. ISBN 978-1-85410-633-9.

^ Magnan, Antoine (1934). Le Vol des Insectes. Hermann.

^ “The bumblebee story can be traced back to a 1934 book by entomologist Antoine Magnan, who refers to a calculation by his assistant André Sainte-Laguë, who was an engineer. The conclusion was presumably based on the fact that the maximum possible lift produced by aircraft wings as small as a bumblebee’s wings and traveling as slowly as a bee in flight would be much less than the weight of a bee.”Dickinson, M (2001). “Solving the mystery of insect flight”. Scientific American. 284 (6): 48–57. Bibcode:2001SciAm.284f..48D. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0601-48. PMID 11396342.

^ “Bumblebees Can’t Fly”. Snopes. Retrieved 9 April 2013.

^ “Bumblebees finally cleared for takeoff”. Cornell Chronicle. 20 March 2000.

^ John Maynard Smith. “Flight in Birds and Aeroplanes – Science Video”. Retrieved 20 June 2010.

^ Maes, Francis (2002). A history of Russian music: from Kamarinskaya to Babi Yar. University of California Press. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-520-21815-4. Retrieved 3 April 2010.

^ Maconie, Robin (1997). The science of music. Oxford University Press. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-19-816648-1.

^ Holman, Tomlinson (2007). Surround sound: up and running. Focal Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-0-240-80829-1.

^ “Caltha poetarum: or The bumble bee. Composed by T. Cutwode Esquyre”. University of Michigan Libraries. Retrieved 11 February 2015.

^ “Caltha Poetarum”. Banned Books. Archived from the original on 11 February 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.

^ Watts, Isaac (1715). “How Doth the Little Busy Bee”. Poets.org. Retrieved 13 February 2015.

^ Morgan, Victoria N. (2010). Emily Dickinson and Hymn Culture: Tradition and Experience. Ashgate. pp. 183–184. ISBN 978-0-7546-6942-5.

^ Dickinson, Emily (1986). The Bumble-Bee’s Religion, in a letter to Gilbert Dickinson, 1881. The Letters of Emily Dickinson. Harvard University Press. p. 712. ISBN 9780674526273.

^ Steinberg, Peter K. “Biography”. SylviaPlath.info. Retrieved 19 February 2015.

^ “Sylvia Plath and the Bees”. The County Dublin Beekeepers’ Association. Retrieved 19 February 2015.

^ Kirk, Connie Ann (1 January 2004). Sylvia Plath: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-313-33214-2.

^ Exposition of English insects. WorldCat. 1782. OCLC 15094019.

^ Rowling, J. K. (19 March 1999). “Barnes and Noble interview, 19 March 1999”. AccioQuote!.

Butterfly

 McClure, Melanie; Clerc, Corentin; Desbois, Charlotte; Meichanetzoglou, Aimilia; Cau, Marion; Bastin-Héline, Lucie; Bacigalupo, Javier; Houssin, Céline; Pinna, Charline; Nay, Bastien; Llaurens, Violaine (24 April 2019). “Why has transparency evolved in aposematic butterflies? Insights from the largest radiation of aposematic butterflies, the Ithomiini”. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 286(1901). doi:10.1098/rspb.2018.2769. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 6501930. PMID 30991931.

Jump up to:

a b c d e f Marren, Peter; Mabey, Richard (2010). Bugs Britannica. Chatto and Windus. pp. 196–205. ISBN 978-0-7011-8180-2.

^ Donald A. Ringe, A Linguistic History of English: From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (Oxford: Oxford, 2003), 232.

^ Grimaldi, David A.; Engel, Michael S. (2005). Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press. p. 561. ISBN 978-0-521-82149-0.

^ Davies, Hazel; Butler, Carol A. (2008). Do Butterflies Bite?. Rutgers University Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-8135-4268-3.

^ Meyer, Herbert William; Smith, Dena M . (2008). Paleontology of the Upper Eocene Florissant Formation, Colorado. Geological Society of America. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-8137-2435-5.

^ “Lepidoptera – Latest Classification”. Discoveries in Natural History & Exploration. University of California. Archived from the original on 7 April 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2011.

^ McIntosh, W. C.; et al. (1992). “Calibration of the Latest Eocene-Oligocene geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale Using 40Ar/39Ar Dated Ignimbrites”. Geology. 20 (5): 459–463. Bibcode:1992Geo….20..459M. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1992)020<0459:cotleo>2.3.co;2.

^ Heikkilä, M.; Kaila, L.; Mutanen, M.; Peña, C.; Wahlberg, N. (2012). “Cretaceous Origin and Repeated Tertiary Diversification of the Redefined Butterflies”. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 279 (1731): 1093–1099. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.1430. PMC 3267136. PMID 21920981.

^ Kawahara, A. Y.; Breinholt, J. W. (2014). “Phylogenomics Provides Strong Evidence for Relationships of Butterflies And Moths”. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 281 (1788): 20140970. doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.0970. PMC 4083801. PMID 24966318.

Jump up to:

a b c d e f g Culin, Joseph. “Lepidopteran: Form and function”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 September 2015.

^ Mason, C. W. (1927). “Structural Colors in Insects. II”. The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 31 (3): 321–354. doi:10.1021/j150273a001.

^ Vukusic, P.; J. R. Sambles & H. Ghiradella (2000). “Optical Classification of Microstructure in Butterfly Wing-scales”. Photonics Science News. 6: 61–66.

^ Prum, R.; Quinn, T.; Torres, R. (February 2006). “Anatomically Diverse Butterfly Scales all Produce Structural Colours by Coherent Scattering”. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 209(Pt 4): 748–65. doi:10.1242/jeb.02051. ISSN 0022-0949. PMID 16449568.

Jump up to:

a b c d e Gullan, P. J.; Cranston, P. S. (2014). The Insects: An Outline of Entomology (5 ed.). Wiley. pp. 523–524. ISBN 978-1-118-84616-2.

^ Herrera, Carlos M. (1992). “Activity Pattern and Thermal Biology of a Day-Flying Hawkmoth (Macroglossum stellatarum) under Mediterranean summer conditions”. Ecological Entomology. 17: 52–56. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2311.1992.tb01038.x. hdl:10261/44693. S2CID 85320151.

^ “Butterflies and Moths (Order Lepidoptera)”. Amateur Entomologists’ Society. Retrieved 13 September 2015.

^ Traut, W.; Marec, F. (August 1997). “Sex Chromosome Differentiation in Some Species of Lepidoptera (Insecta)”. Chromosome Research. 5 (5): 283–91. doi:10.1023/B:CHRO.0000038758.08263.c3. ISSN 0967-3849. PMID 9292232. S2CID 21995492.

Jump up to:

a b Williams, Ernest; Adams, James; Snyder, John. “Frequently Asked Questions”. The Lepidopterists’ Society. Archived from the original on 13 May 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015.

^ “Global Distribution”. Monarch Lab. Archived from the original on 6 October 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015.

^ “Chill Turns Monarchs North; Cold Weather Flips Butterflies’ Migratory Path”. Science News. 183 (6). 23 March 2013.

^ Pyle, Robert Michael (1981). National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Butterflies. Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 712–713. ISBN 978-0-394-51914-2.

^ “Butterfly Conservation: Secrets of Painted Lady migration unveiled”. BirdGuides Ltd. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012.

^ Williams, C. B. (1927). “A Study of Butterfly Migration in South India and Ceylon, based largely on records by Messrs. G. Evershed, E. E. Green, J. C. F. Fryer and W. Ormiston”. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. 75: 1–33. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2311.1927.tb00054.x.

^ Urquhart, F. A.; Urquhart, N. R. (1977). “Overwintering Areas and Migratory Routes of the Monarch butterfly (Danaus p. plexippus, Lepidoptera: Danaidae) in North America, with Special Reference to the Western Population”. Can. Ent. 109 (12): 1583–1589. doi:10.4039/Ent1091583-12.

^ Wassenaar, L.I.; Hobson, K.A. (1998). “Natal Origins of Migratory Monarch Butterflies at Wintering Colonies in Mexico: New Isotopic Evidence”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (26): 15436–9. Bibcode:1998PNAS…9515436W. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.26.15436. PMC 28060. PMID 9860986.

^ Reppert, Steven M.; Zhu, Haisun; White, Richard H. (2004). “Polarized light Helps Monarch Butterflies Navigate”. Current Biology. 14 (2): 155–158. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2003.12.034. PMID 14738739. S2CID 18022063.

^ Sauman, Ivo; Briscoe, Adriana D.; Zhu, Haisun; Shi, Dingding; Froy, Oren; Stalleicken, Julia; Yuan, Quan; Casselman, Amy; Reppert, Steven M.; et al. (2005). “Connecting the Navigational Clock to Sun Compass Input in Monarch Butterfly Brain”. Neuron. 46 (3): 457–467. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.03.014. PMID 15882645. S2CID 17755509.

^ Southwood, T. R. E. (1962). “Migration of terrestrial arthropods in relation to habitat”. Biol. Rev. 37 (2): 171–214. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.1962.tb01609.x. S2CID 84711127.

^ Dennis, R L H; Shreeve, Tim G.; Arnold, Henry R.; Roy, David B. (2005). “Does Diet Breadth Control Herbivorous Insect Distribution Size? Life History and Resource Outlets for Specialist Butterflies”. Journal of Insect Conservation. 9 (3): 187–200. doi:10.1007/s10841-005-5660-x. S2CID 20605146.

^ Powell, J. A. (1987). “Records of Prolonged Diapause in Lepidoptera”. J. Res. Lepid. 25: 83–109.

^ “Melissa Arctic”. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Retrieved 15 September 2015.

^ Timothy Duane Schowalter (2011). Insect Ecology: An Ecosystem Approach. Academic Press. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-12-381351-0.

^ Arikawa, Kentaro (2001). “Hindsight of Butterflies: The Papilio butterfly has light sensitivity in the genitalia, which appears to be crucial for reproductive behavior”. BioScience. 51 (3): 219–225. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0219:HOB]2.0.CO;2.

^ Schlaepfer, Gloria G. (2006). Butterflies. Marshall Cavendish. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-7614-1745-3.

Jump up to:

a b c Capinera, John L. (2008). Encyclopedia of Entomology. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 640. ISBN 978-1-4020-6242-1.

^ Beament, J.W.L.; Lal, R. (1957). “Penetration Through the Egg-shell of Pieris brassicae“. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 48(1): 109–125. doi:10.1017/S0007485300054134.

^ Scott, James A. (1992). The Butterflies of North America: A Natural History and Field Guide. Stanford University Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-8047-2013-7.

^ Capinera, John L. (2008). Encyclopedia of Entomology. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 676. ISBN 978-1-4020-6242-1.

^ Shepard, Jon; Guppy, Crispin (2011). Butterflies of British Columbia: Including Western Alberta, Southern Yukon, the Alaska Panhandle, Washington, Northern Oregon, Northern Idaho, and Northwestern Montana. UBC Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-7748-4437-6.

^ “British Butterflies: Education: Butterflies in Winter”. Archived from the original on 7 January 2017. Retrieved 12 September2015.

^ “Camberwell Beauty”. NatureGate. Archived from the original on 21 April 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2015.

^ Venkatesha, M. G.; Shashikumar, L.; Gayathri Devi, S.S. (2004). “Protective Devices of the Carnivorous Butterfly, Spalgis epius(Westwood) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)”. Current Science. 87 (5): 571–572.

^ Bingham, C.T. (1907). The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. II (1st ed.). London: Taylor and Francis, Ltd.

^ Devries, P. J. (1988). “The larval Ant-organs of Thisbe irenea (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) and Their Effects Upon Attending Ants”. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 94 (4): 379–393. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1988.tb01201.x.

^ Devries, P. J. (June 1990). “Enhancement of Symbioses Between Butterfly Caterpillars and Ants by Vibrational Communication”. Science. 248 (4959): 1104–1106. Bibcode:1990Sci…248.1104D. doi:10.1126/science.248.4959.1104. PMID 17733373. S2CID 35812411.

^ Thomas, Jeremy; Schönrogge, Karsten; Bonelli, Simona; Barbero, Francesca; Balletto, Emilio (2010). “Corruption of Ant Acoustical Signals by Mimetic Social Parasites”. Communicative and Integrative Biology. 3 (2): 169–171. doi:10.4161/cib.3.2.10603. PMC 2889977. PMID 20585513.

^ Klowden, Marc J. (2013). Physiological Systems in Insects. Academic Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-12-415970-9.

^ Locke, Michael (1997). “Caterpillars have evolved lungs for hemocyte gas exchange”. Journal of Insect Physiology. 44 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1016/s0022-1910(97)00088-7. PMID 12770439.

^ “Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum”. Larva Legs. Chicago Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012.

Jump up to:

a b Brunetti, Craig R.; Selegue, Jayne E.; Monteiro, Antonia; French, Vernon; Brakefield, Paul M.; Carroll, Sean B. (2001). “The Generation and Diversification of Butterfly Eyespot Color Patterns”. Current Biology. 11 (20): 1578–1585. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(01)00502-4. PMID 11676917. S2CID 14290399.

^ Harpel, D.; Cullen, D. A.; Ott, S. R.; Jiggins, C. D.; Walters, J. R. (2015). “Pollen feeding proteomics: Salivary proteins of the passion flower butterfly, Heliconius melpomene”. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 63: 7–13. doi:10.1016/j.ibmb.2015.04.004. PMID 25958827.

^ “The Online Guide to the Animals of Trinidad and Tobago |Heliconius ethilla (Ethilia Longwing Butterfly)” (PDF). UWI St. Augustine. Retrieved 28 May 2018.

^ Woodbury, Elton N. (1994). Butterflies of Delmarva. Delaware Nature Society; Tidewater Publishers. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-87033-453-5.

^ Gilbert, L. E. (1972). “Pollen Feeding and Reproductive Biology of Heliconius Butterflies”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 69 (6): 1402–1407. Bibcode:1972PNAS…69.1403G. doi:10.1073/pnas.69.6.1403. PMC 426712. PMID 16591992.

^ Herrera, C. M. (1987). “Components of Pollinator ‘Quality’: Comparative Analysis of a Diverse Insect Assemblage” (PDF). Oikos. 50 (1): 79–90. doi:10.2307/3565403. JSTOR 3565403. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 February 2009.

^ Goulson, D.; Ollerton, J.; Sluman, C. (1997). “Foraging strategies in the small skipper butterfly, Thymelicus flavus: when to switch?” (PDF). Animal Behaviour. 53 (5): 1009–1016. doi:10.1006/anbe.1996.0390. S2CID 620334.

^ Molleman, Freerk; Grunsven, Roy H. A.; Liefting, Maartje; Zwaan, Bas J.; Brakefield, Paul M. (2005). “Is Male Puddling Behaviour of Tropical Butterflies Targeted at Sodium for Nuptial Gifts or Activity?”. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 86(3): 345–361. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2005.00539.x.

^ Gochfeld, Michael; Burger, Joanna (1997). Butterflies of New Jersey: A Guide to Their Status, Distribution, Conservation, and Appreciation. Rutgers University Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-8135-2355-2.

^ “Article on San Diego Zoo website”. Sandiegozoo.org. Retrieved 30 March 2009.

^ Birch, M. C.; Poppy, G. M. (1990). “Scents and Eversible Scent Structures of Male Moths” (PDF). Annual Review of Entomology. 35: 25–58. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.35.1.25.

^ Obara, Y.; Hidaki, T. (1968). “Recognition of the Female by the Male, on the Basis of Ultra-Violet Reflection, in the White Cabbage Butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora Boisduval”. Proceedings of the Japan Academy. 44 (8): 829–832. doi:10.2183/pjab1945.44.829.

^ Hirota, Tadao; Yoshiomi, Yoshiomi (2004). “Color Discrimination on Orientation of Female Eurema hecabe (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)”. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 39 (2): 229–233. doi:10.1303/aez.2004.229.

^ Kinoshita, Michiyo; Shimada, Naoko; Arikawa, Kentaro (1999). “Color Vision of the Foraging Swallowtail Butterfly Papilio xuthus“. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 202 (2): 95–102. PMID 9851899.

^ Swihart, S. L (1967). “Hearing in Butterflies”. Journal of Insect Physiology. 13 (3): 469–472. doi:10.1016/0022-1910(67)90085-6.

^ Information, Reed Business (17 December 1988). “Butterflies Make Best Use of the Sunshine”. New Scientist: 13. ISSN 0262-4079.

^ Ellers, J.; Boggs, Carol L. (2002). “The Evolution of Wing Color in Colias Butterflies: Heritability, Sex Linkage, and population divergence” (PDF). Evolution. 56 (4): 836–840. doi:10.1554/0014-3820(2002)056[0836:teowci]2.0.co;2. PMID 12038541.

^ Srygley, R. B.; Thomas, A. L. R. (2002). “Aerodynamics of Insect Flight: Flow Visualisations with Free Flying Butterflies Reveal a Variety of Unconventional Lift-Generating Mechanisms”. Nature. 420 (6916): 660–664. Bibcode:2002Natur.420..660S. doi:10.1038/nature01223. PMID 12478291. S2CID 11435467.

^ Feltwell, J. (2012). Large White Butterfly: The Biology, Biochemistry and Physiology of Pieris brassicae (Linnaeus). Springer. pp. 401–. ISBN 978-94-009-8638-1.

^ Burton, Maurice; Burton, Robert (2002). International Wildlife Encyclopedia: Brown bear – Cheetah. Marshall Cavendish. p. 416. ISBN 978-0-7614-7269-8.

Jump up to:

a b Allen, Thomas J. (2005). A Field Guide to Caterpillars. Oxford University Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-19-803413-1.

^ “Parasites and Natural Enemies”. University of Minnesota. Retrieved 16 October 2015.

^ Feltwell, J. (2012). Large White Butterfly: The Biology, Biochemistry and Physiology of Pieris Brassicae (Linnaeus). Springer. p. 429. ISBN 978-94-009-8638-1.

^ CITES appendices I, II and III, official website

^ Meyer, A. (October 2006). “Repeating Patterns of Mimicry”. PLOS Biology. 4 (10): e341. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040341. ISSN 1544-9173. PMC 1617347. PMID 17048984.

^ Nishida, Ritsuo (2002). “Sequestration of Defensive Substances from Plants by Lepidoptera”. Annual Review of Entomology. 47: 57–92. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.47.091201.145121. PMID 11729069.

Jump up to:

a b c Edmunds, M. (1974). Defence in Animals. Longman. pp. 74–78, 100–113.

^ Halloran, Kathryn; Wason, Elizabeth (2013). Papilio polytes. Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 12 September 2015.

^ Robbins, Robert K. (1981). “The “False Head” Hypothesis: Predation and Wing Pattern Variation of Lycaenid Butterflies”. American Naturalist. 118 (5): 770–775. doi:10.1086/283868. S2CID 34146954.

^ Forbes, Peter (2009). Dazzled and Deceived: Mimicry and Camouflage. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-17896-8.

^ Edmunds, Malcolm (2012). “Deimatic Behavior”. Springer. Retrieved 31 December 2012.

^ “Featured Creatures: Giant Swallowtail”. University of Florida. Retrieved 12 September 2015.

^ Fiedler, K.; Holldobler, B.; Seufert, P. (1996). “Butterflies and Ants: The Communicative Domain”. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 52: 14–24. doi:10.1007/bf01922410. S2CID 33081655.

^ Nafus, D. M.; Schreiner, I. H. (1988). “Parental Care in a Tropical Nymphalid Butterfly Hypolimas anomala“. Animal Behaviour. 36 (5): 1425–1443. doi:10.1016/s0003-3472(88)80213-6. S2CID 53183529.

^ Cooper, William E. Jr. (1998). “Conditions Favoring Anticipatory and Reactive Displays Deflecting Predatory Attack”. Behavioral Ecology. 9 (6): 598–604. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.928.6688. doi:10.1093/beheco/9.6.598.

^ Stevens, M. (2005). “The Role of Eyespots as Anti-Predator Mechanisms, Principally Demonstrated in the Lepidoptera”. Biological Reviews. 80 (4): 573–588. doi:10.1017/S1464793105006810. PMID 16221330. S2CID 24868603.

Jump up to:

a b Brakefield, PM; Gates, Julie; Keys, Dave; Kesbeke, Fanja; Wijngaarden, Pieter J.; Montelro, Antónia; French, Vernon; Carroll, Sean B.; et al. (1996). “Development, Plasticity and Evolution of Butterfly Eyespot Patterns”. Nature. 384 (6606): 236–242. Bibcode:1996Natur.384..236B. doi:10.1038/384236a0. PMID 12809139. S2CID 3341270.

^ Elfferich, Nico W. (1998). “Is the larval and imaginal signalling of Lycaenidae and other Lepidoptera related to communication with ants”. Deinsea. 4 (1).

^ Brakefield, P. M.; Kesbeke, F.; Koch, P. B. (December 1998). “The Regulation of Phenotypic Plasticity of Eyespots in the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana“. The American Naturalist. 152 (6): 853–60. doi:10.1086/286213. ISSN 0003-0147. PMID 18811432. S2CID 22355327.

^ Monteiro, A.; Pierce, N. E. (2001). “Phylogeny of Bicyclus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) Inferred from COI, COII, and EF-1 Alpha Gene Sequences” (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 18 (2): 264–281. doi:10.1006/mpev.2000.0872. PMID 11161761. S2CID 20314608. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2019.

^ Nijhout, Hf (January 2003). “Development and Evolution of Adaptive Polyphenisms”. Evolution & Development. 5 (1): 9–18. doi:10.1046/j.1525-142X.2003.03003.x. ISSN 1520-541X. PMID 12492404. S2CID 6027259.

^ Brakefield, Paul M.; Larsen, Torben B. (1984). “The Evolutionary Significance of Dry and Wet Season Forms in some Tropical Butterflies” (PDF). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 22: 1–12. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.1984.tb00795.x. hdl:1887/11011.

^ Lyytinen, A.; Brakefield, P. M.; Lindström, L.; Mappes, J. (2004). “Does Predation Maintain Eyespot Plasticity in Bicyclus anynana. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 271 (1536): 279–283. doi:10.1098/rspb.2003.2571. PMC 1691594. PMID 15058439.

^ The Mathematical Butterfly: Simulations Provide New Insights On Flight

^ Science, 12 May 2017, “Where Have All the Insects Gone?”Vol. 356, Issue 6338, pp. 576-579

^ Reckhaus, Hans-Dietrich, “Why Every Fly Counts: A Documentation about the Value and Endangerment of Insects”(Springer International, 2017) pp.2-5

^ Larsen, Torben (1994). “Butterflies of Egypt”. Saudi Aramco World. 45 (5): 24–27.

^ Miller, Mary (1993). The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-27928-1.

^ “Table Complete with Real Butterflies Embedded in Resin”. Archived from the original on 6 May 2010. Retrieved 30 March2009.

^ Pinar (13 November 2013). “Entire Alphabet Found on the Wing Patterns of Butterflies”.

^ Nilsson, Hans. “Bellman på Spåren” (in Swedish). Bellman.net. Retrieved 13 September 2015.

^ Van Rij, Jan (2001). Madame Butterfly: Japonisme, Puccini, and the Search for the Real Cho-Cho-San. Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 9781880656525.

^ Hearn, Lafcadio (1904). Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things. Dover. ISBN 978-0-486-21901-1.

^ Louis, Chevalier de Jaucourt (Biography) (January 2011). “Butterfly”. Encyclopedia of Diderot and d’Alembert. Retrieved 1 April 2015.

^ Hutchins, M., Arthur V. Evans, Rosser W. Garrison and Neil Schlager (Eds) (2003) Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia, 2nd edition. Volume 3, Insects. Gale, 2003.

^ Rabuzzi, M. 1997. Butterfly etymology. Cultural Entomology November 1997 Fourth issue online Archived 3 December 1998 at the Wayback Machine

^ “Church Releases Butterflies as Symbol of Rebirth”. The St. Augustine Record. Retrieved 8 September 2015.

^ “I’m Scared to Be a Woman”. Human Rights Watch. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2015. a 22-year-old transgender woman sports a tattoo of a butterfly—a transgender symbol signifying transformation

^ Dorset Chronicle, May 1825, reprinted in: “The First Butterfly”, in The Every-day Book and Table Book; or, Everlasting Calendar of Popular Amusements, etc. Vol III., ed. William Hone, (London: 1838) p 678.

^ “Superstitions and Beliefs Related to Death”. Living in the Philippines. Retrieved 9 October 2015.

^ “Official State Butterflies”. NetState.com. Retrieved 9 September 2015.

^ Leach, William (27 March 2014). “Why Collecting Butterflies Isn’t Cruel”. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 17 January 2021.

^ “Collecting and Preserving Butterflies”. Texas A&M UniversityBug Hunter. Retrieved 17 January 2021.

^ “Rearing caterpillars”. Amateur Entomologists’ Society (AES). Retrieved 17 January 2021.

^ Vukusic, Pete; Hooper, Ian (2005). “Directionally Controlled Fluorescence Emission in Butterflies”. Science. 310 (5751): 1151. doi:10.1126/science.1116612. PMID 16293753. S2CID 43857104.

^ Vanderbilt, Tom. “How Biomimicry is Inspiring Human Innovation”. Smithsonian. Retrieved 8 September 2015.

Octopi

 “ITIS Report: Octopoda Leach, 1818”. Itis.gov. 10 April 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2014.

Jump up to:

a b “Coleoidea – Recent cephalopods”. Mikko’s Phylogeny Archive.

^ Harper, Douglas. “octopus”. Online Etymology Dictionary.

^ “Octopus”. Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 4 February2014.

^ ὀκτάπους, ὀκτώπους. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.

^ Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Shen, Yuan; Aiden, Aviva; Veres, Adrian; Gray, Matthew; Pickett, Joseph; Hoiberg, Dale; Clancy, Dan; Norvig, Peter; Orwant, Jon; Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin (2011). “Quantitative Analysis of Culture Using Millions of Digitized Books”. Science. 331 (6014): 176–182. Bibcode:2011Sci…331..176M. doi:10.1126/science.1199644. PMC 3279742. PMID 21163965. Relevant data at Google Ngram Viewer.

^ “Octopus”. Oxforddictionaries.com. 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.

^ Peters, Pam (2004). The Cambridge Guide to English Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-62181-X, p. 388.

^ Fowler, Henry Watson (1994). A Dictionary of Modern English Usage. p. 316. ISBN 9781853263187. In Latin plurals there are some traps for non-Latinists; the termination of the singular is no sure guide to that of the plural. Most Latin words in -us have plural in -i, but not all, & so zeal not according to knowledge issues in such oddities as…octopi…; as caution the following list may be useful:…octopus, -podes

^ “The Many Plurals of ‘Octopus'”. www.merriam-webster.com.

^ Butterfield, Jeremy (2015). Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191744532. The only correct plural in English is octopuses. The Greek original is ὀκτώπους, -ποδ- (which would lead to a pedantic English pl. form octopodes). The pl. form octopi, which is occasionally heard (mostly in jocular use), though based on modL octopus, is misconceived

^ Chambers 21st Century Dictionary Archived 24 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine (retrieved 19 October 2007 )

^ Stamper, Kory. Ask the editor: octopus. Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 30 April 2013. Retrieved 26 June2013.

^ “octopus”. Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)

^ Stevenson, Angus; Lindberg, Christine A., eds. (2010). New Oxford American Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-539288-3.

^ “Smithsonian National Zoological Park: Giant Pacific Octopus”. Nationalzoo.si.edu. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.

^ Cosgrove, J.A. 1987. Aspects of the Natural History of Octopus dofleini, the Giant Pacific Octopus. MSc Thesis. Department of Biology, University of Victoria (Canada), 101 pp.

^ Norman, M. 2000. Cephalopods: A World Guide. ConchBooks, Hackenheim. p. 214.

^ High, William L. (1976). “The giant Pacific octopus” (PDF). Marine Fisheries Review. 38 (9): 17–22.

^ O’Shea, S. (2004). “The giant octopus Haliphron atlanticus(Mollusca : Octopoda) in New Zealand waters”. New Zealand Journal of Zoology. 31 (1): 7–13. doi:10.1080/03014223.2004.9518353. S2CID 84954869.

^ O’Shea, S. (2002). Haliphron atlanticus – a giant gelatinous octopus” (PDF). Biodiversity Update. 5: 1.

^ Bradford, Alina (21 July 2016). “Octopus Facts”. Live Science. Retrieved 26 April 2017.

Jump up to:

a b c d e f g h i j k l m Ruppert, Edward E.; Fox, Richard S.; Barnes, Robert D. (2008). Invertebrate Zoology. Cengage Learning. pp. 363–364. ISBN 978-81-315-0104-7.

^ Wells (1978), pp. 11–12.

^ Ruth A., Byrne; Kuba, Michael J.; Meisel, Daniela V.; Griebel, Ulrike; Mather, Jennifer A. (August 2006). “Does Octopus vulgarishave preferred arms?”. Journal of Comparative Psychology. 120(3): 198–204. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.120.3.198. PMID 16893257.

Jump up to:

a b Mather, Anderson & Wood (2010), pp. 13–15.

Jump up to:

a b c d Courage (2013), pp. 40–41.

^ Semmens (2004). “Understanding octopus growth: patterns, variability and physiology”. Marine and Freshwater Research. 55 (4): 367. doi:10.1071/MF03155. S2CID 84208773.

Jump up to:

a b Carefoot, Thomas. “Octopuses and Relatives: Locomotion, Crawling”. A Snail’s Odyssey. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2017.

^ Zelman, I.; Titon, M.; Yekutieli, Y.; Hanassy, S.; Hochner, B.; Flash, T. (2013). “Kinematic decomposition and classification of octopus arm movements”. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience. 7: 60. doi:10.3389/fncom.2013.00060. PMC 3662989. PMID 23745113.

^ Tramacere, F.; Beccai, L.; Kuba, M.; Gozzi, A.; Bifone, A.; Mazzolai, B. (2013). “The morphology and adhesion mechanism of Octopus vulgaris suckers”. PLOS ONE. 8 (6): e65074. Bibcode:2013PLoSO…865074T. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065074. PMC 3672162. PMID 23750233.

^ Kier, W. M.; Smith, A. M. (2002). “The structure and adhesive mechanism of octopus suckers”. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 42 (6): 1146–1153. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.512.2605. doi:10.1093/icb/42.6.1146. PMID 21680399. S2CID 15997762.

^ Katz, Itamar; Shomrat, Tal; Nesher, Nir (1 January 2021). “Feel the light – sight independent negative phototactic response in octopus’ arms”. Journal of Experimental Biology. 224 (5). doi:10.1242/jeb.237529. ISSN 0022-0949. PMID 33536305.

Jump up to:

a b c d “Finned Deep-sea Octopuses, Grimpoteuthis spp”. MarineBio. Retrieved 14 May 2021.

Jump up to:

a b c d Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2004). Encyclopedia of the Aquatic World. Marshall Cavendish. p. 764. ISBN 978-0-7614-7424-1.

Jump up to:

a b c Wells (1978), pp. 31–35.

Jump up to:

a b c Courage (2013), pp. 42–43.

Jump up to:

a b Schmidt-Nielsen, Knut (1997). Animal Physiology: Adaptation and Environment. Cambridge University Press. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-521-57098-5.

^ Carefoot, Thomas. “Octopuses and Relatives: Locomotion, jet propulsion”. A Snail’s Odyssey. Archived from the original on 28 April 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2017.

Jump up to:

a b Wells (1978), pp. 24–26.

^ Wells, M. J.; Wells, J. (1995). “The control of ventilatory and cardiac responses to changes in ambient oxygen tension and oxygen demand in Octopus. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 198 (Pt 8): 1717–1727. doi:10.1242/jeb.198.8.1717. PMID 9319626.

^ Wells, J. (1996). “Cutaneous respiration in Octopus vulgaris. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 199 (Pt 11): 2477–2483. doi:10.1242/jeb.199.11.2477. PMID 9320405.

Jump up to:

a b Wells (1978), pp. 73–79.

^ Wells (1978), pp. 54–56.

Jump up to:

a b c d Albertin, Caroline B.; Simakov, Oleg; Mitros, Therese; Wang, Z. Yan; Pungor, Judit R.; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Brenner, Sydney; Ragsdale, Clifton W.; Rokhsar, Daniel S. (2015). “The octopus genome and the evolution of cephalopod neural and morphological novelties”. Nature. 524 (7564): 220–224. doi:10.1038/nature14668. ISSN 0028-0836.

^ Pilleri, Georg (1984). Investigations on Cetacea. 16–17. Hirnanatomisches Institut der Universität. p. 161. Retrieved 30 July 2018.

^ Hochner, B. (2012). “An Embodied View of Octopus Neurobiology”. Current Biology. 22 (20): R887–R892. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.09.001. PMID 23098601.

^ Yekutieli, Y.; Sagiv-Zohar, R.; Aharonov, R.; Engel, Y.; Hochner, B.; Flash, T. (2005). “Dynamic model of the octopus arm. I. Biomechanics of the octopus reaching movement”. Journal of Neurophysiology. 94 (2): 1443–1458. doi:10.1152/jn.00684.2004. PMID 15829594. S2CID 14711055.

^ Zullo, L.; Sumbre, G.; Agnisola, C.; Flash, T.; Hochner, B. (2009). “Nonsomatotopic organization of the higher motor centers in Octopus”. Current Biology. 19 (19): 1632–1636. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.07.067. PMID 19765993. S2CID 15852956.

^ Kawamura, G.; et al. (2001). “Color Discrimination Conditioning in Two Octopus Octopus aegina and O. vulgaris (PDF). Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi. 67 (1): 35–39. doi:10.2331/suisan.67.35. Archived from the original (PDF)on 14 July 2010.

^ Kingston, Alexandra C. N.; Kuzirian, Alan M.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Cronin, Thomas W. (2015). “Visual phototransduction components in cephalopod chromatophores suggest dermal photoreception”. Journal of Experimental Biology. 218 (10): 1596–1602. doi:10.1242/jeb.117945. ISSN 1477-9145.

^ Ramirez, M. Desmond; Oakley, Todd H. (2015). “Eye-independent, light-activated chromatophore expansion (LACE) and expression of phototransduction genes in the skin of Octopus bimaculoides”. Journal of Experimental Biology. 218 (10): 1513–1520. doi:10.1242/jeb.110908. ISSN 1477-9145.

^ Stubbs, Alexander L.; Stubbs, Christopher W. (2016). “Spectral discrimination in color blind animals via chromatic aberration and pupil shape”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113 (29): 8206–8211. doi:10.1073/pnas.1524578113. ISSN 0027-8424.

^ Hu, Marian Y.; Yan, Hong Young; Chung, Wen-Sung; Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Hwang, Pung-Pung (2009). “Acoustically evoked potentials in two cephalopods inferred using the auditory brainstem response (ABR) approach”. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 153(3): 278–283. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2009.02.040. ISSN 1095-6433.

^ Nesher, Nir; Levy, Guy; Grasso, Frank W.; Hochner, Binyamin (2014). “Self-Recognition Mechanism between Skin and Suckers Prevents Octopus Arms from Interfering with Each Other”. Current Biology. 24 (11): 1271–1275. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2014.04.024. ISSN 0960-9822.

^ Wells (1978), pp. 228–244.

^ Mather, Anderson & Wood (2010), p. 107.

^ Derby, C. D. (2014). “Cephalopod Ink: Production, Chemistry, Functions and Applications”. Marine Drugs. 12 (5): 2700–2730. doi:10.3390/md12052700. PMC 4052311. PMID 24824020.

Jump up to:

a b Mather, Anderson & Wood (2010), p. 147.

^ Wells, Martin J.; Wells, J. (1972). “Optic glands and the state of the testis in Octopus“. Marine Behaviour and Physiology. 1 (1–4): 71–83. doi:10.1080/10236247209386890.

^ Young, R. E.; Vecchione, M.; Mangold, K. M. (1999). “Cephalopoda Glossary”. Tree of Life web project.

Jump up to:

a b Carefoot, Thomas. “Octopuses and Relatives: Reproduction”. A Snail’s Odyssey. Archived from the originalon 22 April 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2017.

Jump up to:

a b c “Giant Pacific Octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) Care Manual” (PDF). AZA (Association of Zoos and Aquariums) Aquatic Invertebrate Taxonomic Advisory Group in association with AZA Animal Welfare Committee. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2016.

^ Scheel, David. “Giant Octopus: Fact Sheet”. Alaska Pacific University. Archived from the original on 15 November 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2017.

^ Forsythe, J. W.; Hanlon, R. T. (1980). “A closed marine culture system for rearing Octopus joubini and other large-egged benthic octopods”. Laboratory Animals. 14 (2): 137–142. doi:10.1258/002367780780942737. PMID 7431823. S2CID 19492476.

^ Simon, Matt (16 January 2015). “Absurd Creature of the Week: The Beautiful Octopus Whose Sex Is All About Dismemberment”. Wired: Science. Retrieved 20 May 2017.

^ Hooper, Rowan (21 December 2019). “Octopuses were thought to be solitary until a social species turned up”. New Scientist.

^ Anderson, Roland C.; Wood, James B.; Byrne, Ruth A. (2002). “Octopus Senescence: The Beginning of the End”. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. 5 (4): 275–283. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.567.3108. doi:10.1207/S15327604JAWS0504_02. PMID 16221078. S2CID 28355735.

^ Wodinsky, Jerome (1977). “Hormonal Inhibition of Feeding and Death in Octopus: Control by Optic Gland Secretion”. Science. 198 (4320): 948–951. Bibcode:1977Sci…198..948W. doi:10.1126/science.198.4320.948. PMID 17787564. S2CID 22649186.

^ Jamieson, A.J.; Vecchione, M. (2020). “First in situ observation of Cephalopoda at hadal depths (Octopoda: Opisthoteuthidae: Grimpoteuthis sp.)”. Marine Biology. 167 (82). doi:10.1007/s00227-020-03701-1.

^ Norman, Mark (16 January 2013). “Ask an expert: Are there any freshwater cephalopods?”. ABC Science. Retrieved 26 April2017.

^ Edmonds, Patricia (April 2016). “What’s Odd About That Octopus? It’s Mating Beak to Beak”. National Geographic.

^ Scheel, D.; et al. (2017). “A second site occupied by Octopus tetricus at high densities, with notes on their ecology and behavior”. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology. 50(4): 285–291. doi:10.1080/10236244.2017.1369851. S2CID 89738642.

^ Rodaniche, Arcadio F. (1991). “Notes on the behavior of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus, an undescribed species of the genus Octopus”. Bulletin of Marine Science. 49: 667.

^ Caldwell, Roy L.; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L. (2015). “Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus”. PLOS ONE. 10 (8): e0134152. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1034152C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134152. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4534201. PMID 26266543.

^ Goldman, Jason G. (24 May 2012). “How do octopuses navigate?”. Scientific American. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ Courage (2013), pp. 45–46.

Jump up to:

a b Carefoot, Thomas. “Octopuses and Relatives: Feeding, diets and growth”. A Snail’s Odyssey. Archived from the original on 8 May 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2017.

^ Sampaio, Eduardo; Seco, Martim Costa; Rosa, Rui; Gingins, Simon (18 December 2020). “Octopuses punch fishes during collaborative interspecific hunting events”. Ecology. Ecological Society of America/Wiley Publishing. 102 (3): e03266. doi:10.1002/ecy.3266. ISSN 0012-9658. PMID 33338268.

Jump up to:

a b Wassilieff, Maggy; O’Shea, Steve (2 March 2009). “Octopus and squid – Feeding and predation”. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand.

Jump up to:

a b Wells (1978), pp. 74–75.

^ Wodinsky, Jerome (1969). “Penetration of the Shell and Feeding on Gastropods by Octopus (PDF). American Zoologist. 9 (3): 997–1010. doi:10.1093/icb/9.3.997.

^ Carefoot, Thomas. “Octopuses and Relatives: Prey handling and drilling”. A Snail’s Odyssey. Archived from the original on 6 June 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2017.

^ Johnsen, S.; Balser, E. J.; Fisher, E. C.; Widder, E. A. (1999). “Bioluminescence in the deep-sea cirrate octopod Stauroteuthis syrtensis Verrill (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)” (PDF). The Biological Bulletin. 197 (1): 26–39. doi:10.2307/1542994. JSTOR 1542994. PMID 28296499. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2011.

Jump up to:

a b c Huffard, Christine L. (2006). “Locomotion by Abdopus aculeatus (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae): walking the line between primary and secondary defenses”. Journal of Experimental Biology. 209 (Pt 19): 3697–3707. doi:10.1242/jeb.02435. PMID 16985187.

^ Kassim, I.; Phee, L.; Ng, W. S.; Gong, F.; Dario, P.; Mosse, C. A. (2006). “Locomotion techniques for robotic colonoscopy”. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine. 25 (3): 40–56. doi:10.1109/MEMB.2006.1636351. PMID 16764431. S2CID 9124611.

^ Huffard, C. L.; Boneka, F.; Full, R. J. (2005). “Underwater Bipedal Locomotion by Octopuses in Disguise”. Science. 307(5717): 1927. doi:10.1126/science.1109616. PMID 15790846. S2CID 21030132.

Jump up to:

a b Wood, J. B; Anderson, R. C (2004). “Interspecific Evaluation of Octopus Escape Behavior” (PDF). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. 7 (2): 95–106. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.552.5888. doi:10.1207/s15327604jaws0702_2. PMID 15234886. S2CID 16639444. Retrieved 11 September 2015.

^ Mather, Anderson & Wood (2010), p. 183.

Jump up to:

a b Finn, J. K.; Tregenza, T.; Norman, M. D. (2009). “Defensive tool use in a coconut-carrying octopus”. Current Biology. 19 (23): R1069–70. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.10.052. PMID 20064403. S2CID 26835945.

Jump up to:

a b Stewart, Doug (1997). “Armed but not dangerous: Is the octopus really the invertebrate intellect of the sea”. National Wildlife. 35 (2).

^ “Octopus intelligence: Jar opening”. BBC News. 25 February 2003. Retrieved 4 February 2014.

^ Mather, J. A.; Anderson, R. C. (1998). Wood, J. B. (ed.). “What behavior can we expect of octopuses?”. The Cephalopod Page.

^ Lee, Henry (1875). “V: The octopus out of water”. Aquarium Notes – The Octopus; or, the “devil-fish” of fiction and of fact. London: Chapman and Hall. pp. 38–39. OCLC 1544491. Retrieved 11 September 2015. The marauding rascal had occasionally issued from the water in his tank, and clambered up the rocks, and over the wall into the next one; there he had helped himself to a young lump-fish, and, having devoured it, returned demurely to his own quarters by the same route, with well-filled stomach and contented mind.

^ Ainge Roy, Eleanor (14 April 2016). “The great escape: Inky the octopus legs it to freedom from aquarium”. The Guardian (Australia).

^ Meyers, Nadia. “Tales from the Cryptic: The Common Atlantic Octopus”. Southeastern Regional Taxonomic Centre. Retrieved 27 July 2006.

Jump up to:

a b c Mather, Anderson & Wood (2010), pp. 90–97.

^ Hanlon, R. T.; Messenger, J. B. (2018). Cephalopod Behaviour(2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 110–111. ISBN 978-0521723701.

Jump up to:

a b Carefoot, Thomas. “Octopuses and Relatives: Predators and Defenses”. A Snail’s Odyssey. Archived from the original on 21 April 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2017.

^ Mäthger, L. M.; Bell, G. R.; Kuzirian, A. M.; Allen, J. J.; Hanlon, R. T. (2012). “How does the blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata) flash its blue rings?”. Journal of Experimental Biology. 215 (21): 3752–3757. doi:10.1242/jeb.076869. PMID 23053367.

^ Wigton, Rachel; Wood, James B. “Grass octopus (Octopus macropus)”. Marine Invertebrates of Bermuda. Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences. Archived from the original on 19 January 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2018.

^ Hanlon, R. T.; Messenger, J. B. (1998). Cephalopod Behaviour(1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 80–81, 111. ISBN 978-0-521-64583-6.

^ Caldwell, R. L. (2005). “An Observation of Inking Behavior Protecting Adult Octopus bocki from Predation by Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) Hatchlings” (PDF). Pacific Science. 59 (1): 69–72. doi:10.1353/psc.2005.0004. hdl:10125/24161. S2CID 54223984.

^ Harmon, Katherine (27 August 2013). “Even Severed Octopus Arms Have Smart Moves”. Octopus Chronicles. Scientific American.

^ Mather, Anderson & Wood (2010), p. 85.

^ Norman, M. D.; Finn, J.; Tregenza, T. (2001). “Dynamic mimicry in an Indo-Malayan octopus” (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society. 268 (1478): 1755–8. doi:10.1098/rspb.2001.1708. PMC 1088805. PMID 11522192. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 February 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2008.

^ Norman, M. D. (2005). “The ‘Mimic Octopus’ (Thaumoctopus mimicus n. gen. et sp.), a new octopus from the tropical Indo-West Pacific (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae)”. Molluscan Research. 25(2): 57–70.

^ Pascal, Santiago; Gestal, Camino; Estevez, J.; Arias, Christian Andrés (1996). “Parasites in commercially-exploited cephalopods (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) in Spain: An updated perspective”. Aquaculture. 142 (1–2): 1–10. doi:10.1016/0044-8486(96)01254-9.

^ Furuya, Hidetaka; Tsuneki, Kazuhiko (2003). “Biology of Dicyemid Mesozoans”. Zoological Science. 20 (5): 519–532. doi:10.2108/zsj.20.519. PMID 12777824. S2CID 29839345.

^ Castellanos-Martínez, Sheila; Gestal, Camino (2013). “Pathogens and immune response of cephalopods”. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 447: 14–22. doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2013.02.007.

^ Farto, R.; Armada, S. P.; Montes, M.; Guisande, J. A.; Pérez, M. J.; Nieto, T. P. (2003). “Vibrio lentus associated with diseased wild octopus (Octopus vulgaris)”. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 83(2): 149–156. doi:10.1016/S0022-2011(03)00067-3. PMID 12788284.

^ Gofas, S. (2009). “Octopoda”. WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 5 May 2017.

^ Mather, Anderson & Wood (2010), p. 145.

Jump up to:

a b Sanchez, Gustavo; Setiamarga, Davin H. E.; Tuanapaya, Surangkana; Tongtherm, Kittichai; Winkelmann, Inger E.; Schmidbaur, Hannah; Umino, Tetsuya; Albertin, Caroline; Allcock, Louise; Perales-Raya, Catalina; Gleadall, Ian; Strugnell, Jan M.; Simakov, Oleg; Nabhitabhata, Jaruwat (2018). “Genus-level phylogeny of cephalopods using molecular markers: current status and problematic areas”. PeerJ. 6: e4331. doi:10.7717/peerj.4331. PMC 5813590. PMID 29456885.

^ Fuchs, D.; Ifrim, C.; Stinnesbeck, W. (2008). “A newPalaeoctopus (Cephalopoda: Coleoidea) from the Late Cretaceous of Vallecillo, north-eastern Mexico, and implications for the evolution of Octopoda”. Palaeontology. 51 (5): 1129–1139. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2008.00797.x.

Jump up to:

a b c Fuchs, Dirk; Iba, Yasuhiro; Heyng, Alexander; Iijima, Masaya; Klug, Christian; Larson, Neal L.; Schweigert, Günter; Brayard, Arnaud (2019). “The Muensterelloidea: phylogeny and character evolution of Mesozoic stem octopods”. Papers in Palaeontology. 6 (1): 31–92. doi:10.1002/spp2.1254. ISSN 2056-2802.

Jump up to:

a b c Kröger, Björn; Vinther, Jakob; Fuchs, Dirk (2011). “Cephalopod origin and evolution: A congruent picture emerging from fossils, development and molecules”. BioEssays. 33 (8): 602–613. doi:10.1002/bies.201100001. ISSN 0265-9247.

^ Fuchs, Dirk; Schweigert, Günter (2018). “First Middle–Late Jurassic gladius vestiges provide new evidence on the detailed origin of incirrate and cirrate octopuses (Coleoidea)”. PalZ. 92 (2): 203–217. doi:10.1007/s12542-017-0399-8. ISSN 0031-0220. S2CID 135245479.

^ Fuchs, Dirk; Iba, Yasuhiro; Heyng, Alexander; Iijima, Masaya; Klug, Christian; Larson, Neal L.; Schweigert, Günter (2020). Brayard, Arnaud (ed.). “The Muensterelloidea: phylogeny and character evolution of Mesozoic stem octopods”. Papers in Palaeontology. 6 (1): 31–92. doi:10.1002/spp2.1254. ISSN 2056-2802.

^ “A Broad Brush History of the Cephalopoda”. The Cephalopod Group. Retrieved 27 March 2017.

^ Young, R. E.; Vecchione, M.; Mangold, K. M. (1999). “Cephalopoda Glossary”. Tree of Life web project. Retrieved 30 May 2017.

^ Seibel, B. Vampyroteuthis infernalis, Deep-sea Vampire squid”. The Cephalopod Page. Retrieved 31 May 2017.

^ Ibáñez, Christian M.; Fenwick, Mark; Ritchie, Peter A.; Carrasco, Sergio A.; Pardo-Gandarillas, M. Cecilia (2020). “Systematics and Phylogenetic Relationships of New Zealand Benthic Octopuses (Cephalopoda: Octopodoidea)”. Frontiers in Marine Science. 7. doi:10.3389/fmars.2020.00182. ISSN 2296-7745.

^ Courage (2013), pp. 46–49.

^ Liscovitch-Brauer, N.; Alon, S.; Porath, H. T.; Elstein, B.; Unger, R.; Ziv, T.; Admon, A.; Levanon, E. Y.; Rosenthal, J. J. C.; Eisenberg, E. (2017). “Trade-off between transcriptome plasticity and genome evolution in cephalopods”. Cell. 169 (2): 191–202. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2017.03.025. PMC 5499236. PMID 28388405.

^ Hogan, C. Michael (22 December 2007). “Knossos fieldnotes”. The Modern Antiquarian.

^ Wilk, Stephen R. (2000). Medusa: Solving the Mystery of the Gorgon. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-988773-6.

^ Linnaeus, Carl (1735). Systema Naturae. Laurentius Salvius.

^ Smedley, Edward; Rose, Hugh James; Rose, Henry John (1845). Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, Or, Universal Dictionary of Knowledge: Comprising the Twofold Advantage of a Philosophical and an Alphabetical Arrangement, with Appropriate Engravings. B. Fellowes. pp. 255–.

^ Dixon, Roland Burrage (1916). Oceanic. The Mythology of All Races. 9. Marshall Jones Company. pp. 2–.

^ Bastian, Adolf (1881). Die heilige Sage der Polynesier: Kosmogonie und Theogonie. Oxford University. Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus. pp. 107–108.

^ Beckwith, Martha Warren (1981). The Kumulipo: A Hawaiian Creation Chant. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 52–53. ISBN 978-0824807719.

^ Srinivasan, A. (2017). “The Sucker, the Sucker! [Review]”(PDF). London Review of Books. 39 (17): 23–25.

^ “[Review] The Toilers of the Sea by Victor Hugo & Translated by James Hogarth”. Kirkus Reviews. 2002. Retrieved 14 May2021.

^ Cohen-Vrignaud, Gerard (2012). “On Octopussies, or the Anatomy of Female Power”. Differences. 23 (2): 32–61. doi:10.1215/10407391-1533520.

^ Fritze, Sointu; Suojoki, Saara (2000). Forbidden Images: Erotic Art from Japan’s Edo Period (in Finnish). Helsingin kaupungin taidemuseo. pp. 23–28. ISBN 978-951-8965-54-4.

^ Uhlenbeck, Chris; Winkel, Margarita; Tinios, Ellis; Newland, Amy Reigle (2005). Japanese Erotic Fantasies: Sexual Imagery of the Edo Period. Hotei. p. 161. ISBN 978-90-74822-66-4.

^ Briel, Holger (2010). Berninger, Mark; Ecke, Jochen; Haberkorn, Gideon (eds.). The Roving Eye Meets Traveling Pictures: The Field of Vision and the Global Rise of Adult Manga. Comics As a Nexus of Cultures: Essays on the Interplay of Media, Disciplines. McFarland. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-7864-3987-4.

^ Myers, Paul Zachary (17 May 2017). “Extraordinary Octopus Illustrations”. Pharyngula. Retrieved 18 March 2017.

^ Myers, Paul Zachary (29 October 2006). “Definitely not safe for work”. Pharyngula. Retrieved 18 March 2017.

^ Smith, S. (26 February 2010). “Why Mark Zuckerberg Octopus Cartoon Evokes ‘Nazi Propaganda,’ German Paper Apologizes”. iMediaEthics. Retrieved 31 May 2017.

^ Ross, Philip (18 February 2014). “8-Foot Octopus Wrestles Diver Off California Coast, Rare Encounter Caught on Camera”. International Business Times.

^ Fry, B. G.; Roelants, K.; Norman, J. A. (2009). “Tentacles of Venom: Toxic Protein Convergence in the Kingdom Animalia”. Journal of Molecular Evolution. 68 (4): 311–321. doi:10.1007/s00239-009-9223-8. ISSN 0022-2844.

^ “Blue-ringed Octopuses, Hapalochlaena maculosa. The MarineBio Conservation Society. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2017.

^ Caldwell, Roy. “What makes blue-rings so deadly? Blue-ringed octopus have tetrodotoxin”. The Cephalopod Page. Retrieved 12 April 2017.

^ Wells (1978), pp. 68.

Jump up to:

a b Gillespie, G. E.; Parker, G.; Morrison, J. (1998). “A Review of Octopus Fisheries Biology and British Columbia Octopus Fisheries” (PDF). Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat.

^ Rocliffe, S.; Harris, A. (2016). “The status of octopus fisheries in the Western Indian Ocean”. Retrieved 18 June 2017.

^ “Giant Pacific octopus”. Monterey Bay Aquarium. 2017. Archived from the original on 4 July 2018. Retrieved 1 August2015.

^ Eriksen, L. (10 November 2010). “Live and let dine”. The Guardian. Retrieved 15 April 2015.

^ Killingsworth, Silvia (3 October 2014). “Why not eat octopus?”. The New Yorker. Retrieved 15 April 2016.

^ Ferrier, M. (30 May 2010). “Macho foodies in New York develop a taste for notoriety”. The Guardian. Retrieved 15 April 2015.

^ Wells, Martin (1983). “Cephalopods do it differently”. New Scientist. 100 (1382). pp. 333–334. ISSN 0262-4079.

^ Sauer, Warwick H. H.; Gleadall, Ian G.; et al. (6 December 2019). “World Octopus Fisheries”. Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture. Taylor & Francis: 56, 99. doi:10.1080/23308249.2019.1680603. hdl:10261/227068. ISSN 2330-8249. S2CID 210266167.

^ Aristotle (c. 350 BC). Historia animalium. IX, 622a: 2–10. Cited in Borrelli, Luciana; Gherardi, Francesca; Fiorito, Graziano (2006). A catalogue of body patterning in Cephalopoda. Firenze University Press. ISBN 978-88-8453-377-7. Abstract

^ Leroi, Armand Marie (2014). The Lagoon: How Aristotle Invented Science. Bloomsbury. pp. 71–72. ISBN 978-1-4088-3622-4.

^ “The Cephalopoda”. University of California Museum of Paleontology. Retrieved 27 March 2017.

^ Mann, T. (2012). Spermatophores: Development, Structure, Biochemical Attributes and Role in the Transfer of Spermatozoa. Springer. p. 28. ISBN 978-3-642-82308-4.

^ Laschi, Cecilia; Cianchetti, Matteo; Mazzolai, Barbara; Margheri, Laura; Follador, Maurizio; Dario, Paolo (2012). “Soft Robot Arm Inspired by the Octopus”. Advanced Robotics. 26 (7): 709–727. doi:10.1163/156855312X626343. ISSN 0169-1864.

^ Godfrey-Smith, Peter (2018). Other Minds: The Octopus, the Sea, and the Deep Origins of Consciousness. William Collins. pp. 77–105, 137–157. ISBN 978-0-00-822629-9.

^ Baer, Drake (20 December 2016). “Octopuses Are ‘the Closest We Will Come to Meeting an Intelligent Alien'”. Science of Us. Retrieved 26 April 2017.

^ Brulliard, Karin (13 April 2016). “Octopus slips out of aquarium tank, crawls across floor, escapes down pipe to ocean”. The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 February 2017.

^ “The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act (Amendment) Order 1993”. The National Archives. Retrieved 18 February 2015.

^ “The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 Amendment Regulations 2012”. The National Archives. Retrieved 18 February 2015.

^ “Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council”. Official Journal of the European Union. Article 1, 3(b) (see page 276/39). Retrieved 18 February 2015.

^ “PoseiDRONE”. The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna. Retrieved 14 May 2021.

^ Laschi, Cecilia (2015). “Soft Robotics Research, Challenges, and Innovation Potential, Through Showcases”. Soft Robotics: 255–264. doi:10.1007/978-3-662-44506-8_21.

^ Burgess, Matt (27 March 2017). “This robotic octopus tentacle isn’t creepy at all”. Wired.

Lotus Flower

“Sacred Lotus”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica.

 Shen-Miller, J.; Schopf, J. W.; Harbottle, G.; Cao, R.-j.; Ouyang, S.; Zhou, K.-s.; Southon, J. R.; Liu, G.-h. (2002). “Long-living lotus: Germination and soil -irradiation of centuries-old fruits, and cultivation, growth, and phenotypic abnormalities of offspring”. American Journal of Botany. 89 (2): 236–47. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.2.236. PMID 21669732.

 Pulok K. Mukherjee; Debajyoti Mukherjee; Amal K. Maji; S. Rai; Michael Heinrich (2010). “The sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)– phytochemical and therapeutic profile”. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 61 (4): 407–422. doi:10.1211/jpp.61.04.0001. PMID 19298686. S2CID 85342386.

 Yi Zhang; Xu Lu; Shaoxiao Zeng; Xuhui Huang; Zebin Guo; Yafeng Zheng; Yuting Tian; Baodong Zheng (2015). “Nutritional composition, physiological functions and processing of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seeds: a review”. Phytochem Rev. 14 (3): 321–334. doi:10.1007/s11101-015-9401-9. S2CID 16527010.

 Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). “An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV”. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385. ISSN 0024-4074.

 Texas A and M University Bioinformatics Working Group : Cronquist System

 “Nelumbo nucifera”. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 11 June 2019.

 “Nelumbo nucifera – Gaertn”. Plants for a Future. Retrieved 11 June 2019.

 “Nelumbo nucifera | sacred lotus”. Royal Horticultural Society. 1999. Retrieved 11 June 2019.

 Yoon, Carol Kaesuk (1996-10-01). “Heat of Lotus Attracts Insects And Scientists”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-11-14.

 Shen-Miller; Mudgett, M. B.; William Schopf, J.; Clarke, S.; Berger, R.; et al. (1995). “Exceptional seed longevity and robust growth: Ancient sacred lotus from China”. American Journal of Botany. 82 (11): 1367–1380. doi:10.2307/2445863. JSTOR 2445863.

 Shen-Miller, J. (2002). “Long-living lotus: germination and soil gamma-irradiation of centuries-old fruits, and cultivation, growth, and phenotypic abnormalities of offspring”. American Journal of Botany. 89 (2): 236–247. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.2.236. PMID 21669732. Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) has been cultivated as a crop in Asia for thousands of years. An ≈1300-yr-old lotus fruit, recovered from an originally cultivated but now dry lakebed in northeastern China, is the oldest germinated and directly 14C-dated fruit known. In 1996, we traveled to the dry lake at Xipaozi Village, China, the source of the old viable fruits.

 Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Liu, Yanling; Yang, Mei; Han, Yuepeng; et al. (2013). “Genome of the long-living sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.)”. Genome Biology. 14 (5): R41. doi:10.1186/gb-2013-14-5-r41. PMC 4053705. PMID 23663246.

 “Sacred Lotus Genome Sequence Enlightens Scientists”. Science Daily. 10 May 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2013.

 Wolpert, Stuart (10 May 2013). “Scientists sequence genome of ‘sacred lotus,’ which likely holds anti-aging secrets”. UCLA Newsroom. Retrieved 13 May 2013.

 Sou, S. Y.; Fujishige, N. (1995). “Cultivation comparison of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) between China and Japan”. Journal of Zhejiang Agricultural Sciences. 4: 187–189.

 Dictionary of Gardening. Huxley, Anthony, 1920-1992., Griffiths, Mark, 1963-, Royal Horticultural Society. London: Macmillan Press. 1992. ISBN 978-0333474945. OCLC 25202760.

 Phillips, Roger (1995). Vegetables. Rix, Martyn. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0333626405. OCLC 32465255.

 Tian, Daike (2008). Container production and post-harvest handling of Lotus (Nelumbo) and Micropropagation of herbaceous Peony (Paeonia). Auburn: Auburn University.

 Masuda, Junichiro; Urakawa, Toshihiro; Ozaki, Yukio; Okubo, Hiroshi (2006-01-01). “Short Photoperiod Induces Dormancy in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)”. Annals of Botany. 97 (1): 39–45. doi:10.1093/aob/mcj008. PMC 2000761. PMID 16287906.

 “Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. | Plants of the World Online”. Kew Science. Retrieved 2017-11-19.

 Tian, Daike; Tilt, Ken M.; Sibley, Jeff L.; Woods, Floyd M.; Dane, Fenny (2009-06-01). “Response of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) to Planting Time and Disbudding”. HortScience. 44 (3): 656–659. doi:10.21273/HORTSCI.44.3.656.

 Kubitzki, Klaus; Rohwer, Jens G.; Bittrich, Volker (2011-01-28). Flowering plants, dicotyledons : magnoliid, hamamelid, and caryophyllid families. Kubitzki, Klaus, 1933-, Rohwer, J. G. (Jens G.), 1958-, Bittrich, V. (Volker), 1954-. Berlin. ISBN 9783642081415. OCLC 861705944.

 Lim, T. K. (2016). “Nelumbo nucifera”. Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants. Springer, Cham. pp. 55–109. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-26062-4_5. ISBN 978-3319260617.

 La-ongsri, Woranuch; Trisonthi, Chusie; Balslev, Henrik (2009-08-01). “Management and use of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. in Thai wetlands”. Wetlands Ecology and Management. 17 (4): 279–289. doi:10.1007/s11273-008-9106-6. ISSN 0923-4861. S2CID 25530088.

 V., Nguyen, Q. (2001). Exporting lotus to Asia : an agronomic and physiological study : a report for the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. Hicks, D., Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (Australia). Asian Foods Research and Development. Barton, A.C.T.: RIRDC. ISBN 978-0642582546. OCLC 52647644.

 Kay, Daisy E. (1987). Root crops (2nd ed.). London: Tropical Development and Research Institute. ISBN 978-0859542005. OCLC 19298279.

 Deni., Bown (1995). Encyclopedia of herbs & their uses. Herb Society of America. (1st American ed.). London: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 978-0789401847. OCLC 32166152.

 Guo, H. B. (2009-05-01). “Cultivation of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ssp. nucifera) and its utilization in China”. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 56 (3): 323–330. doi:10.1007/s10722-008-9366-2. ISSN 0925-9864. S2CID 19718393.

 Assessing lotus for wastewater bioremediation. Seymour, Evizel., Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (Australia). Canberra: Rural Industries Research and Development Corp. 2009. ISBN 978-1741518887. OCLC 682913738.

 YU, Xin; et al. (2002). “Progress in the Research on Post-harvest Physiology and Storage Techniques of Nelumbo nucifera gaertn [J]”. Guangzhou Food Science and Technology. 3: 019.

 Tian, N., et al. “Isolation and preparation of flavonoids from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn by preparative reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography.” Se pu= Chinese journal of chromatography 25.1 (2007): 88-92.

 Su, X.; Jiang, Y.; Li, Y.; Lin, W. (2003). “Effects of 4-hexylresorcinol (4-HR) on browning and quality of fresh-cut lotus”. Food Science. 24: 142–145.

 M.A. Rojas-Graüa, M.S. Tapiab, O. Martín-Bellosoa. Using polysaccharide-based edible coatings to maintain quality of fresh-cut Fuji apples. LWT Food Science and Technology, 41 (2008), pp. 139-147

 “9 Nutritious Lotus Root Recipes To Try”. Honest Food Talks. 12 December 2020.

 Tsuchiya, T.; Nohara, S. (1989). “Growth and life span of the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. in lake Kasumigaura, Japan”. Aquatic Botany. 36 (1): 87–95. doi:10.1016/0304-3770(89)90094-6.

 Mukherjee PK. et al. Isolation, estimation and characterization of starch from rhizomes of Nelumbo nuciferaGaertn (Fam. Nymphaeaceae). Ind Drugs 1995; 32: 392–397.

 Mukherjee PK. et al. Pharmaceutical application of starch isolated from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Fam. Nymphaeaceae). Ind J Pharm Sci 1996; 58: 59–66.

 He, J; Cheng, W; Chen, X; Wen, S; Zhang, G; Xiong, G; Ye, L; Chen, Y (2006). “Study on the vacuum sublimation freezing-drying of lotus seeds”. Hubei Agric Sci. 45: 240–244.

 Tian, Y; Zhang, Y; Zeng, S; Zheng, Y; Chen, F; Guo, Z; Lin, Y; Zheng, B (2012b). “Optimization of microwave vacuum drying of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seeds by response surface methodology”. Food Sci Technol Int. 18 (5): 477–488. doi:10.1177/1082013211433071. PMID 23144241. S2CID 42335541.

 Bhat, R; Sridhar, KR; Karim, AA; Young, CC; Arun, AB (2009). “Influence of c-radiation on the nutritional and functional qualities of lotus seed flour”. J Agric Food Chem. 57 (20): 9524–9531. doi:10.1021/jf902287e. PMID 19778060.

 Wu C, Xia Y, Tang X (2013) Optimization of fermentation process for lotus rice-wine production by response surface methodology. Mod Food Sci Technol 29:1675–1679

 Zhang, Yi; Lu, Xu; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Huang, Xuhui; Guo, Zebin; Zheng, Yafeng; Tian, Yuting; Zheng, Baodong (2015). “Nutritional composition, physiological functions and processing of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seeds: A review”. Phytochemistry Reviews. 14 (3): 321. doi:10.1007/s11101-015-9401-9. S2CID 16527010.

 Thongchai Kanabkaew; Udomphon Puetpaiboon (2004). “Aquatic plants for domestic wastewater Treatment: Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) and Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) systems” (PDF). Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 26.

 H.M. Anawar; A. Garcia-Sanchez; M. Tari Kul Alam; M. Majibur Rahman (2008). “Phytofiltration of water polluted with arsenic and heavy metals”. International Journal of Environment and Pollution. 33. doi:10.1504/IJEP.2008.0194 (inactive 2021-01-18).

 Virendra Mishra (2009). “Accumulation of Cadmium and Copper from Aqueous Solutions using Indian Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)”. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment. 38 (2): 110–112. doi:10.1579/0044-7447-38.2.110. PMID 19431942. S2CID 43473128.

 Gallego, S. M.; M. P. Benavides; M. L. Tomaro (1996). “Effect of heavy metal ion excess on sunflower leaves: evidence for involvement of oxidative stress”. Plant Science. 121 (2): 151–159. doi:10.1016/s0168-9452(96)04528-1.

 “Lotus care sheet”.

 Liu, C.-Q. (December 2013). “Ecological restoration using Trapa bispinosa and Nelumbo nucifera on eutrophic water body in Baizangdian Lake”. Wetland Science. 11 (4): 510–514.

 Guo, H.B. (2009). “Cultivation of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. spp. nucifera) and ist utilization in China”. Genet Resour Crop Evol. 56 (3): 323–330. doi:10.1007/s10722-008-9366-2. S2CID 19718393.

 Shen-Miller, J.; Lindner, Petra; Xie, Yongming; Villa, Sarah; Wooding, Kerry; Clarke, Steven G.; Loo, Rachel R. O.; Loo, Joseph A. (2013-09-01). “Thermal-stable proteins of fruit of long-living Sacred Lotus Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn var. China Antique”. Tropical Plant Biology. 6 (2–3): 69. doi:10.1007/s12042-013-9124-2. ISSN 1935-9756. PMC 3869599. PMID 24363819.

 Zi Xi, Lian (2011). “Neferine inhibits cultured hepatic stellate cell activation and facilitates apoptosis: a possible molecular mechanism”. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 650 (1): 163–169. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.10.025. PMID 20969858.

 Kashiwada, Y.; Aoshima, A.; Ikeshiro, Y.; Chen, Y. P.; Furukawa, H.; Itoigawa, M.; Fujioka, T.; Mihashi, K.; Cosentino, L. M.; Morris-Natschke, S. L.; Lee, K. H. (2005). “Anti-HIV benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and flavonoids from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera, and structure–activity correlations with related alkaloids”. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 13 (2): 443–448. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2004.10.020. PMID 15598565.

 Menendez-Perdomo, I. M. and P. J. Facchini (2018). “Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloids Biosynthesis in Sacred Lotus.” Molecules 23(11) doi:10.3390/molecules23112899 PMID 30404216

 Menendez-Perdomo, I. M. and P. J. Facchini (2020). “Isolation and characterization of two O-methyltransferases involved in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera).” J Biol Chem 295(6): 1598-1612 doi:10.1074/jbc.RA119.011547 PMID 31914404

 Khare CP. Indian Herbal Remedies: Rational Western Therapy, Ayurvedic, and Other Traditional Usage, Botany, 1st edn. USA: Springer, 2004: 326–327.

 Sridhar KR, Bhat R. Lotus: a potential nutraceutical source. J Agri Technol 2007; 3: 143–155.

 “Lotus: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning”. www.webmd.com. Retrieved 2020-02-18.

 Mukherjee, Pulok K; Pal, M; Saha, Kakali; Saha, B. P; Das, J (1996). “Diuretic Activity of Extract of the Rhizomes of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Fam. Nymphaeaceae)”. Phytotherapy Research. 10 (5): 424. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199608)10:5<424::AID-PTR857>3.0.CO;2-3.

 Mukherjee, Pulok K; Mukherjee, Debajyoti; Maji, Amal K; Rai, S; Heinrich, Michael (2009). “The sacred lotus(Nelumbo nucifera)- phytochemical and therapeutic profile”. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 61 (4): 407–22. doi:10.1211/jpp.61.04.0001. PMID 19298686. S2CID 85342386.

 Ding, Hui; Shi, Jinghong; Wang, Ying; Guo, Jia; Zhao, Juhui; Dong, Lei (2011). “Neferine inhibits cultured hepatic stellate cell activation and facilitates apoptosis: A possible molecular mechanism”. European Journal of Pharmacology. 650 (1): 163–169. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.10.025. PMID 20969858.

 Li, Z (2008). “Nutrient value and processing of lotus seed”. Acad Period Agric Prod Process. 2008: 42–43.

 Zheng, B; Zheng, J; Zeng, S (2003). “Analysis of the nutritional compositionin chinese main lotus seed varieties”. Acta Nutr Sin. 25: 153–156.

 Wu, J.; Zheng, Y.; Chen, T.; Yi, J.; Qin, L.; Rahman, K.; Lin, W. (2007). “Evaluation of the quality of lotus seed of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn from outer space mutation”. Food Chemistry. 105 (2): 540–547. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.04.011.

 Mukherjee, PK.; et al. (1998). “Pharmacognostical profiles of rhizomes of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn”. Ancient Sci Life. 17: 273–279.

 Mukherjee, PK; et al. (1996). “Antipyretic activity of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract”. Ind J Exp Biol. 34 (3): 275–276. PMID 8781041.

 Mukherjee, PK; Das, J; Saha, K; Pal, M; Saha, BP (1996). “Diuretic activity of the rhizomes of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (Fam. Nymphaeaceae)”. Phytother Res. 10 (5): 424–425. doi:10.1002/(sici)1099-1573(199608)10:5<424::aid-ptr857>3.3.co;2-v.

 Mukherjee, PK; Saha, K; Balasubramanian, R; Pal, M; Saha, BP (1996). “Studies on psychopharmacological effects of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Rhizome extract”. J Ethnopharmacol. 54 (2): 63–67. doi:10.1016/s0378-8741(96)01455-9. PMID 8953419.

 Mukherjee, K; Saha, K; Pal, M; Saha, B (1997). “Effect of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract on blood sugar level in rats”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 58 (207–213): 207–13. doi:10.1016/s0378-8741(97)00107-4. PMID 9421256.

 Huralikuppi, JC; Christopher, AB; Stephen, P (1991). “Antidiabetic effect of Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn): Part I Preliminary studies in rabbits”. Phytother Res. 5 (2): 54–58. doi:10.1002/ptr.2650050203. S2CID 57700188.

 Mukherjee, P. K.; Das, J.; Saha, K.; Giri, S. N.; Pal, M.; Saha, B. P. (1996). “Antipyretic activity of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract”. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 34 (3): 275–6. PMID 8781041.

 Wang, J; Zhang, G (2010). “The yield and chemical composition of lotus seed on different culture conditions”. Hubei J TCM. 32: 75–76.

 Shad, MA; Nawaz, H; Siddique, F; Zahra, J; Mushtaq, A (2013). “Nutritional and functional characterization of seed kernel of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera): application of response surface methodology”. Food Sci Technol Res. 19 (2): 163–172. doi:10.3136/fstr.19.163.

 Tang, P; Jiang, Z; Mei, C; Jiang, H (1998). “The composition, solubility and quality of lotus seed”. J Beijing Norm Univ (Nat Sci). 34: 532–537.

 Zheng, B; Zheng, J; Zeng, C (2004). “Study on three functional components of Chinese main lotus seed varieties”. Acta Nutr Sin. 26: 158–160.

 Zheng B, Zheng J, Zeng S (2003) Analysis of the nutritional composition in Chinese main lotus seed varieties. Acta Nutr Sin 25:153–156

 Wu J, Zheng Y, Chen T, Yi J, Qin L, Rahman K, Lin W (2007) Evaluation of the quality of lotus seed of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. from outer space mutation. Food Chem 105:540–547

 Sung J, Sung J, Shin H (2011) Cytoprotective effects of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner) seed extracts on oxidative damaged mouse embryonic fibroblast cell. Food Sci Biotechnol 20:1533–1537

 Xia Y (2012) Effect of germination on chemical and functional properties of lotus seeds. Food Sci 33:91–98

 “Nelumbo nucifera (sacred lotus)”. Kew. Archived from the original on 30 May 2014. Retrieved 26 July 2015.

 Jansen, Eva Rudy, The Book of Hindu Imagery: The Gods and their Symbols, p. 18, 1993, Binkey Kok Publications, ISBN 9074597076, 9789074597074, google books

 Krishan, Yuvrajmm, Tadikonda, Kalpana K., The Buddha Image: Its Origin and Development, pp. 65, 78, 1996, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 8121505658, 9788121505659, google books

 Moore, Albert C., Klein, Charlotte, Iconography of Religions: An Introduction, p. 148, 1977, Chris Robertson, ISBN 0800604881, 9780800604882, google books

 Rodrigues, H, “The Sacred Lotus Symbol”, Mahavidya, 2016

 Shakti, M. Gupta (1971). Plant Myths and Traditions in India. Netherlands: Brill Publishers. pp. 65–67.

Horses

Mushrooms

Mushroom Fun Facts | Mobile Cuisine (mobile-cuisine.com)

  1. Fun with funghi: Garnish your meals with mushrooms. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Updated January 17, 2019.
  2. Mushrooms, raw. FoodData Central. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Published April 1, 2019.
  3. Nakashima A, Yamada K, Iwata O, et al. β-Glucan in foods and its physiological functions. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 2018;64(1):8-17. doi:10.3177/jnsv.64.8
  4. Lo HC, Wasser SP. Medicinal mushrooms for glycemic control in diabetes mellitus: History, current status, future perspectives, and unsolved problems (review). Int J Med Mushrooms. 2011;13(5):401-26. doi:10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v13.i5.10
  5. Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Micronutrients. Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2001.
  6. Potassium. Fact Sheet for Professionals. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Updated March 2, 2020
  7. Iron. Fact Sheet for Professionals. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Updated December 19, 2019
  8. Wasser SP. Medicinal mushroom science: History, current status, future trends, and unsolved problems. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2010;12(1):1-16. doi:10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v12.i1.10
  9. Chaturvedi VK, Agarwal S, Gupta KK, Ramteke PW, Singh MP. Medicinal mushroom: Boon for therapeutic applications. 3 Biotech. 2018;8(8):334. doi:10.1007/s13205-018-1358-0
  10. Cheung PCK. The nutritional and health benefits of mushrooms. Nutr Bull. 2010;35(4):292-299. doi:10.1111/j.1467-3010.2010.01859.x
  11. Kalaras MD, Richie JP, Calcagnotto A, Beelman RB. Mushrooms: A rich source of the antioxidants ergothioneine and glutathione. Food Chem. 2017;233:429-433. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.109
  12. Feng L, Cheah IK, Ng MM, et al. The association between mushroom consumption and mild cognitive impairment: A community-based cross-sectional study in Singapore. J Alzheimers Dis. 2019;68(1):197-203. doi:10.3233/jad-180959
  13. Vitamin D. Fact Sheet for Professionals. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Updated March 24, 2020
  14. Keegan RJ, Lu Z, Bogusz JM, Williams JE, Holick MF. Photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans. Dermatoendocrinol. 2013;5(1):165-76. doi:10.4161/derm.23321
  15. McRae MP. Dietary fiber intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus: An umbrella review of meta-analyses. J Chiropr Med. 2018;17(1):44-53. doi:10.1016/j.jcm.2017.11.002
  16. Ferreira H, Alves M, Pineda F et al. Cross-reactivity between molds and mushrooms. Pediatr Allergy Immunol and Pulmonol. 2017;30(2):126-128. doi:10.1089/ped.2017.0746
  17. North American Mycological Association. Mushroom poisoning syndromes.
  18. North American Mycological Association. Mushroom Poisoning Syndromes.
  19. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Hallucinogens DrugFacts. What are hallucinogens? Updated April 2019.
  20. Nardozzi, C. The National Gardening Association. Learning Library. Edible Landscaping – Edible of the Month: Two Simple, Beginner Mushrooms.
  21. U.S. Department of Agriculture. FoodData Central. Mushrooms, white, raw. April 1, 2019.
  22. U.S. Department of Agriculture. FoodData Central. Mushrooms, shiitake, raw. April 1, 2019.
  23. U.S. Department of Agriculture. FoodData Central. Mushrooms, raw. October 30, 2020.
  24. Mushrooms, canned. FoodData Central. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Published April 1, 2019.

Conch

Conch – Facts and Beyond | Biology Dictionary

  •  

SEA TURTLE