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References & further reading (use ctrl to jump to section)

The Hive

  • Marino, L., & Colvin, C. M. 2015. Thinking pigs: A comparative review of cognition, emotion, and personality in Sus domesticus. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 28, Article 23859
  • BBC Earth. 2014. Smart Pigs vs Kids | Extraordinary Animals. Available online at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mza1EQ6aLdg
  • Croney, C.C. 1999. Cognitive abilities of domestic pigs. Thesis in Animal Science, The Pennsylvania State University, College of Agricultural Sciences, 1–105.
  • Cerbulis, I.G. 1994. Cognitive abilities of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), Thesis in Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, 1–108.
  • Broom, D. 2010. Cognitive ability and awareness in domestic animals and decisions about obligations to animals. Applied Animal Behavior Science, 126, 1–11.
  • Forkman, B., Furuhaug, I.L., & Jensen, P. 1995. Personality, coping patterns, and aggression in piglets. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 45, 31–42.
  • Gosling, S. & John, O.P. 1999. Personality dimensions in nonhuman animals. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8, 69–75
  • Masson, JM, 2019. The Secret World of Farm Animals. Vintage. p.28-9
  • Friel M, Kunc HP, Griffin K, Asher L, Collins LM. 2016. Acoustic signalling reflects personality in a social mammal. Royal Society journal Open Science.
  • Reimert, I., Bolhuis, J. E., Kemp, B., & Rodenburg, T. B. (2014). Emotions on the loose: emotional contagion and the role of oxytocin in pigs. Animal Cognition.
  • Lo, T. 2018. Saving the bacon! Extraordinary moment pig tries to stop its friend from being slaughtered. Available at: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5259419/Pig-rescues-friend-thats-slaughtered.html
  • Imfeld-Mueller, S., Van Wezemaela, L., Stauffachera, M., Gygax, L., & Hillmann, E. 2011. Do pigs distinguish between situations of different emotional valences during anticipation? Applied Animal Behavior Science, 131.

Caliebe, A, Nebel, A., Makarewicz, C. et al. 2017. Insights into early pig domestication provided by ancient DNA analysis. Sci Rep 7.

Oliver W. and Leus K. 2008. Sus scrofa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/41775/10559847 [Accessed 31 May 2020]

Masson J. 2002. The Secret Life of the Pig: the Emotional World of Farm Animals. Random House.

Masson, JM, 2019. The Secret World of Farm Animals. Vintage. p.46

Marsan, Andrea; Mattioli, Stefano 2013. Il Cinghiale (in Italian). Il Piviere (collana Fauna selvatica. Biologia e gestione).pp. 83–86

Baskin, L.; Danell, K. (2003). Ecology of Ungulates: A Handbook of Species in North, Central, and South America, Eastern Europe and Northern and Central Asia. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 15–38.

Woodland Trust. 2020. Wild boar. Available online at: https://www.woodlandtrust.org.uk/trees-woods-and-wildlife/animals/mammals/wild-boar/ [Accessed 29th May 2020]

Forestry Commission, 2015. Feral wild boar in the Forest of Dean. 3 December 2015. Available online at: www.forestry.gov.uk/forestry/infd-9fyfc5 [Accessed 21 February 2016]

Forestry England. 2019. More information about wild boar. Available online at: https://www.forestryengland.uk/article/more-information-about-wild-boar

Legislation.gov.uk.2007. The Dangerous Wild Animals Act. Available online at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2007/2465/schedule/made

 Weforum.org. 2019. This is how many animals we eat each year. Available at: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/02/chart-of-the-day-this-is-how-many-animals-we-eat-each-year

Pork.ahdb.org.uk. 2019. UK pigs facts and figures. Available at: https://pork.ahdb.org.uk/media/277092/uk-pig-facts-and-figures_2506_190507_web.pdf

DEFRA. 2019. Results of the 2018 FSA Survey into Slaughter Methods in England and Wales. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/778588/slaughter-method-survey-2018.pdf

Hooker, L. 2018. Is it cruel to stun animals with carbon dioxide? Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-44709905

Viva.org.uk. 2020. THE SLAUGHTER OF FARMED ANIMALS IN THE UK. Available at: https://www.viva.org.uk/what-we-do/slaughter/slaughter-farmed-animals-uk#:~:text=Viva!,as%20they%20bleed%20to%20death.&text=Pigs%20are%20supposed%20to%20be,and%20then%20’bled%20out’. [Accessed 8th June 2020]

AHDB.org.uk. 2020 Pig meat trade. Available at: https://ahdb.org.uk/pork/pig-meat-trade [Accessed 31 May 2020]

Agricultural and Horticultural Development Board, 2019. ‘The UK cattle yearbook 2019.’ AHDB. July. Available at https://projectblue.blob.core.windows.net/media/Default/Imported%20Publication%20Docs/CattleYearbook2019_190718_WEB_FINAL.pdf [Accessed 9 April 2020].

Farm Animal Welfare Committee, 2019. ‘Opinion on the Welfare of Cattle kept for Beef Production.’ FAWC. February. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/777246/FAWC_Opinion_on_the_welfare_of_cattle_kept_for_beef_production.pdf [Accessed 9 June 2020].

British Cattle Movement Service, 2014. ‘Official Cattle Breeds and Codes.’ BCMS. 6 May. Available at https://www.gov.uk/guidance/official-cattle-breeds-and-codes [Accessed 9 June 2020].

National Farmers Union. ‘Great British Beef Week.’ NFU. Available at https://www.nfuonline.com/great-british-beef-week-sucklers-2/ [Accessed 9 June 2020].

Earley, B., 2011. ‘Beef Cattle and Veal Crates.’ In: Webster, J., ed. ‘Management and Welfare of Farm Animals.’ (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell), 120-177.

Agricultural and Horticultural Development Board, 2016. ‘More Cattle Approaching Slaughter Age On The Ground In October.’ AHDB. December. Available at  https://beefandlamb.ahdbdigital.org.uk/market-intelligence-news/cattle-approaching-slaughter-age-ground-october/ [Accessed 2 April 2020].

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 2003. ‘Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Livestock: Cattle.’ DEFRA. 23 April. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf [Accessed 9 June 2020].

Agricultural and Horticultural Development Board, 2013. ‘Better management of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD/Pneumonia).’ AHDB, May. Available at http://www.beefandlamb.ahdb.org.uk/wp/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/BRP-plus-BRD-Pneumonia-080316.pdf [Accessed 15 April 2020].

National Animal Disease Information Service (NADISa). ‘Out-Wintering of Cattle.’ NADIS. Available at https://nadis.org.uk/disease-a-z/cattle/out-wintering-of-cattle/ [Accessed 15 April 2020].

Levitt, T., 2018. ‘Dairy’s “dirty secret”: It’s still cheaper to kill male calves than to rear them.’ The Guardian. 26 March. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/mar/26/dairy-dirty-secret-its-still-cheaper-to-kill-male-calves-than-to-rear-them [Accessed 9 June 2020].

BBC, 2018. ‘Call for end to live calf exports from Scotland.’ BBC. 10 September. Available at https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-45412223 [Accessed 9 June 2020].

EFSA, 2012. ‘Scientific Opinion on the welfare of cattle kept for beef production and the welfare in intensive calf farming systems.’The EFSA Journal. 2669, 10 (5). Available at https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2669 [Accessed 10 June 2020].

The Dairy Site, 2010. ‘Veal Production In The UK.’ The Dairy Site. 18 May. Available at http://www.thedairysite.com/articles/2360/veal-production-in-the-uk/#:~:text=Veal%20in%20the%20UK%20is,beef%20production%20in%20the%20UK [Accessed 9 June 2020].

Wasley, A., Kroeker, H., 2018. ‘Revealed: industrial-scale beef farming comes to the UK.’ The Guardian. 29 May. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/may/29/revealed-industrial-scale-beef-farming-comes-to-the-uk [Accessed 15 April 2020].

Animal Welfare Act 2006. Available at https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2006/45/section/1 [Accessed 30 April 2020].

EFSA, 2009. ‘Scientific report on the effects of farming systems on dairy cow welfare and Disease.’ The EFSA Journal. 1143, 1-38. Available at https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1143r [Accessed 10 June 2020].

The Beef Site, 2011. ‘Lameness in Beef Cattle.’ The Beef Site. 17 September. Available at http://www.thebeefsite.com/articles/2869/lameness-in-beef-cattle/ [Accessed 9 June 2020].

McCahill, E., 2018. ‘“Mutant” Belgian Blue bull stuns with shockingly muscle-bound body.’ The Mirror. 1 December. Available at https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/world-news/picture-mutant-belgian-blue-bull-13673907 [Accessed 9 June 2020].

National Animal Disease Information Service (NADISb). ‘Disbudding Calves.’ NADIS. Available at https://nadis.org.uk/disease-a-z/cattle/disbudding-calves/ [Accessed 1 April 2020].

Mainau, E., Temple, D., Manteca, X., 2012. ‘Impact of Dehorning And Disbudding On The Well-Being of Calves.’ Farm Animal Welfare Education Centre. August. Available at https://www.fawec.org/media/com_lazypdf/pdf/Fact_sheet_FAWEC_2_en.pdf [Accessed 1 April 2020].

National Animal Disease Information Service NADISc). ‘Castration: Getting The Best Results For Farm And Calf.’ NADIS. Available at  https://nadis.org.uk/disease-a-z/cattle/castration-of-calves/ [Accessed 1 April 2020].

National Animal Disease Information Service (NADISd). ‘Calf Nutrition And Colostrum Management.’ NADIS. Available at https://nadis.org.uk/disease-a-z/cattle/calf-management/calf-nutrition-and-colostrum-management/ [Accessed 1 April 2020].

Agricultural and Horticultural Development Board, 2017. ‘Nutrition.’ AHDB. September. Available at  http://beefandlamb.ahdb.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Technical-weaning-methods.pdf [Accessed 1 April 2020].

Doward, J., 2020. ‘More Than 100,000 Badgers Slaughtered In Discredited Cull Policy.’ The Guardian. 28 March. Available at  https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/mar/28/more-than-100000-badgers-slaughtered-in-discredited-cull-policy [Accessed 1 April 2020].

National Animal Disease Information Service (NADISe). ‘Bovine TB.’ NADIS. Available at  https://nadis.org.uk/disease-a-z/cattle/bovine-tb/ [Accessed 1 April 2020].

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 2020. ‘Monthly Publications of Official Statistics On The Incidence And Prevalence Of Tuberculosis (TB) In Cattle In Great Britain – To End November 2019.’ DEFRA. Available at  https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/864890/bovinetb-statsnotice-monthly-12feb20.pdf [Accessed 1 April 2020].

National Animal Disease Information Service (NADISf). ‘Downer Cow.’ NADIS. Available at https://nadis.org.uk/disease-a-z/cattle/downer-cow/ [Accessed 1 April 2020].

National Animal Disease Information Service (NADISg). ‘Disease A-Z for Cattle.’ NADIS. Available at https://nadis.org.uk/disease-a-z/cattle/ [Accessed 2 April 2020].

Briggs, H., 2001. ‘Amazing Powers of Sheep.’ BBC, 7 November. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1641463.stm [Accessed 26 March 2020].

Graham, S., 2001. ‘Study Shows Sheep Have Keen Memory For Faces.’ Scientific American, 9 November. Available at https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/study-shows-sheep-have-ke/ [Accessed 26 March 2020].

Villalba, J., Provenza, F., Shaw, R., 2006. ‘Sheep Self-Medicate When Challenged With Illness-Inducing Foods, Animal Behaviour.’ Science Direct 71, (5), pp 1131-1139, May. Available at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0003347206000406 [Accessed 26 March 2020].

Marino, L., Merskin, D., 2019. ‘Animal Sentience, Intelligence, Complexity, and Individuality in Sheep.’ Animal Sentience. Available at https://animalstudiesrepository.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1374&context=animsent [Accessed 26 March 2020].

Sèbe, F., Aubin, T., Nowak, R., Sèbe, O., Perrin, G., Poindron, P., 2011. ‘How And When Do Lambs Recognize The Bleats Of Their Mothers?’ Bioacoustics 20, (3), pp 341-355, January. Available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254215171_How_and_when_do_lambs_recognize_the_bleats_of_their_mothers [Accessed 26 March 2020].

Marino, L., Merskin, D., 2019. ‘Animal Sentience, Intelligence, Complexity, and Individuality in Sheep.’ Animal Sentience. Available at https://animalstudiesrepository.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1374&context=animsent&fbclid=IwAR1z4YE04Ps9WST0M0DNj8QvURB1ETobJdIHKI06GS4TygR9yB7ukNdHCfA [Accessed 26 March 2020].

Kendrick, K., da Costa, A., Leigh, A., et al., 2001. ‘Sheep Don’t Forget A Face.’ Nature 414, pp 165-166, November. Available at https://www.nature.com/articles/35102669 [Accessed 3 April 2020].

University of Cambridge, 2015. ‘Counting On Sheep.’ 10 June. Available at https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/features/counting-on-sheep [Accessed 3 April 2020].

Constable, H., 2017. ‘Sheep Are Not Stupid, And They Are Not Helpless Either.’ BBC, 19 April. Available at http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20170418-sheep-are-not-stupid-and-they-are-not-helpless-either [Accessed 3 April 2020].

Bradford, A., 2015. ‘Facts About Sheep.’ Live Science, 11 November. Available at https://www.livescience.com/52755-sheep-facts.html [Accessed 26 March 2020].

National Geographic. ‘Bighorn Sheep.’ Available at https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/b/bighorn-sheep/?source=A-to-Z [Accessed 26 March 2020].

Raising Sheep. ‘What Do Sheep Eat?’ Available at http://www.raisingsheep.net/what-do-sheep-eat.html [Accessed 3 April 2020].

BBC, 2012. ‘“Oldest Sheep” In The World Dies On Lewis In Western Isles.’ BBC, 28 February. Available at https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-highlands-islands-17182541 [Accessed 3 April 2020].

Phillips, K., 2016. ‘Advice For Weaning Lambs To Help Reduce Stress.’ Farmers Weekly, 23 July. Available at https://www.fwi.co.uk/livestock/advice-weaning-lambs-help-reduce-stress [Accessed 3 April 2020].

Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board, 2019. ‘The UK Sheep Yearbook 2019.’ AHDB. Available at https://projectblue.blob.core.windows.net/media/Default/Imported%20Publication%20Docs/SheepYearbook2019_190718_WEB_FINAL.pdf [Accessed 7 May 2020].

Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs, 2020. ‘Total Income from Farming in the United Kingdom, first estimate for 2019.’ Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs, 7 May. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/883681/agricaccounts-tiffstatsnotice-07may20.pdf [Accessed 7 May 2020].

Sèbe, F., Aubin, T., Nowak, R., Sèbe, O., Perrin, G., Poindron, P., 2011. ‘How And When Do Lambs Recognize The Bleats Of Their Mothers?’ Bioacoustics 20, (3), pp 341-355, January. Available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254215171_How_and_when_do_lambs_recognize_the_bleats_of_their_mothers [Accessed 26 March 2020].

National Sheep Association. ‘The Sheep Farming Year.’ Available at https://www.nationalsheep.org.uk/uk-sheep-industry/sheep-in-the-uk/the-sheep-farming-year/ [Accessed 26 March 2020].

Farm Animal Welfare Council, 2008. ‘FAWC Report On The Implications Of Castration And Tail Docking For The Welfare Of Lambs.’ Farm Animal Welfare Council, June. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/325125/FAWC_report_on_the_implications_of_castration_and_tail_docking_for_the_welfare_of_lambs.pdf [Accessed 26 March 2020].

Balsom, A., 2020. ‘Tail Docking Lambs: Advice, Legislation And Methods Compared.’ Farmers Weekly, 13 January. Available at https://www.fwi.co.uk/livestock/husbandry/tail-docking-lambs-advice-legislation-and-methods-compared [Accessed 3 April 2020].

Mainau, E., Temple, D., Llonch, P., Manteca, X., 2017. ‘Welfare Implications Of Tail Docking And Castration In Sheep.’ Farm Animal Welfare Education Centre, April. Available at https://www.fawec.org/en/fact-sheets/51-sheep/247-castration-taildocking-sheep [Accessed 3 April 2020].

Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRAa). ‘Improving Lamb Survival.’ Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs. Available at http://adlib.everysite.co.uk/resources/000/107/984/lambsurvival.pdf [Accessed 9 April 2020].

Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board, 2020. ‘GB Deadweight Sheep Prices.’ AHDB. Updated Weekly. Available at https://ahdb.org.uk/lamb/gb-deadweight-sheep-prices [Accessed 7 May 2020].

 Countryside, 2020. ‘British Lambing Season.’ Countryside, 6 April. Available at https://www.countrysideonline.co.uk/food-and-farming/feeding-the-nation/livestock/british-lambing-season/ [Accessed 7 May 2020].

TEXEL Sheep Society. ‘Survey Of Age Of English Lambs At Slaughter.’ TEXEL Sheep Society. Available at https://texel.uk/survey-of-age-of-english-lambs-at-slaughter/ [Accessed 3 April 2020].

Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRAc). ‘Welfare Of Animals During Transport.’ Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs. Available at https://assurance.redtractor.org.uk/contentfiles/Farmers-5423.pdf [Accessed 3 April 2020].

Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs, 2013. ‘Caring For Sheep And Goats.’ Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs, 8 April. Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/code-of-recommendations-for-the-welfare-of-livestock-sheep/sheep-and-goats-welfare-recommendations [Accessed 3 April 2020].

National Animal Disease Information Service (NADISa). ‘Lameness Control In Sheep.’ NADIS. Available at https://nadis.org.uk/disease-a-z/sheep/lameness-control-in-sheep/ [Accessed 3 April 2020].

Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRAb). ‘Lameness in Sheep.’ Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs. Available at https://assurance.redtractor.org.uk/contentfiles/Farmers-5437.pdf [Accessed 6 April 2020].

Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs, 2019. ‘Results of the 2018 FSA Survey into Slaughter Methods in England and Wales.’ February. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/778588/slaughter-method-survey-2018.pdf [Accessed 9 April 2020].

Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs, 2015. ‘Red Meat Slaughterhouses: Restraining, Stunning, Killing Animals.’ 15 October. Available at https://www.gov.uk/guidance/red-meat-slaughterhouses-restraining-stunning-killing-animals#animal-stunning-and-killing [Accessed 9 April 2020].

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Assets.publishing.service.gov.uk. 2019. Results of the 2018 FSA Survey into Slaughter Methods in England and Wales. Defra.Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/778588/slaughter-method-survey-2018.pdf [Accessed 17 April 2020].

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Clarke, P. 2020. No alternatives to culling day old male chicks… yet. Available at: https://www.fwi.co.uk/livestock/poultry/layers/no-alternatives-to-culling-day-old-male-chicks-yet?name=no-alternatives-to-culling-day-old-male-chicks-yet&category_name=livestock%2Fpoultry%2Flayers. [Accessed 13 May 2020]

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Levitt, T., 2020. ‘KFC admits a third of its chickens suffer painful inflammation’. The Guardian Thursday 30 July. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/jul/30/kfc-admits-a-third-of-its-chickens-suffer-painful-inflammation [Accessed 3 August 2020].

Perkins, C., 2015. ‘RSPCA bans chicken flock thinning to improve welfare and cut campylobacter’. The Grocer 23 November. Available at https://www.thegrocer.co.uk/meat/rspca-bans-chicken-flock-thinning-to-improve-welfare/528057.article [Accessed 17 August 2020].

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), 2019a. Guidance Broiler (meat) chickens: welfare recommendations. Defra. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/732227/code-of-practice-welfare-of-laying-hens-pullets.pdf [Accessed 17 July 2020].

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a b “Bicycling; A way of life; Faster in town than going by car, bus, tube or on foot”. The Economist. 20 April 2011.

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a b “Bicycles produced in the world”. Worldometers. Retrieved 2 January2012.

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a b Squatriglia, Chuck (23 May 2008). “Honda Sells Its 60 Millionth – Yes, Millionth – Super Cub”. Wired. Retrieved 31 October 2010.

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a b Herlihy 2004, pp. 200–50.

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a b c d Herlihy 2004, pp. 266–71.

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^ Heitmann JA. The Automobile and American Life. McFarland, 2009, ISBN 0-7864-4013-9, pp. 11ff

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a b c “bicycle”. Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)

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^ “pushbike”. Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)

^ “pedal cycle”. Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)

^ “cycle”. Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)

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^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 50.

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^ McGrory, p. 222.

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^ Meijaard, J.P.; Papadopoulos, Jim M.; Ruina, Andy; Schwab, A.L. (2007). “Linearized dynamics equations for the balance and steer of a bicycle: a benchmark and review”. Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 463 (2084): 1955–82. Bibcode:2007RSPSA.463.1955M. doi:10.1098/rspa.2007.1857. S2CID 18309860.

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^ “AeroVelo Eta: bullet-shaped bike sets new human-powered speed record”. International Business Times. 21 September 2016. Retrieved 29 November2016.

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^ Kicinski-Mccoy, James (3 August 2015). “The Coolest Bike Accessories For Kids”. MOTHER. Retrieved 30 April 2020.

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^ The TC149 ISO bicycle committee, including the TC149/SC1 (“Cycles and major sub-assemblies”) subcommittee, has published the following standards:[citation needed]

  • ISO 4210 Cycles – Safety requirements for bicycles
  • ISO 6692 Cycles – Marking of cycle components
  • ISO 6695 Cycles – Pedal axle and crank assembly with square end fitting – Assembly dimensions
  • ISO 6696 Cycles – Screw threads used in bottom bracket assemblies
  • ISO 6697 Cycles – Hubs and freewheels – Assembly dimensions
  • ISO 6698 Cycles – Screw threads used to assemble freewheels on bicycle hubs
  • ISO 6699 Cycles – Stem and handlebar bend – Assembly dimensions
  • ISO 6701 Cycles – External dimensions of spoke nipples
  • ISO 6742 Cycles – Lighting and retro-reflective devices – Photometric and physical requirements
  • ISO 8090 Cycles – Terminology (same as BS 6102-4)
  • ISO 8098 Cycles – Safety requirements for bicycles for young children
  • ISO 8488 Cycles – Screw threads used to assemble head fittings on bicycle forks
  • ISO 8562 Cycles – Stem wedge angle
  • ISO 10230 Cycles – Splined hub and sprocket – Mating dimensions
  • ISO 11243 Cycles – Luggage carriers for bicycles – Concepts, classification and testing

Other ISO Technical Committees have published various cycle relevant standards, for example:

  • ISO 5775 Bicycle tire and rim designations
  • ISO 9633 Cycle chains – Characteristics and test methods

Published cycle standards from CEN TC333 include:

  • EN 14764 City and trekking bicycles – Safety requirements and test methods
  • EN 14765 Bicycles for young children – Safety requirements and test methods
  • EN 14766 Mountain-bicycles – Safety requirements and test methods
  • EN 14781 Racing bicycles – Safety requirements and test methods
  • EN 14782 Bicycles – Accessories for bicycles – Luggage carriers
  • EN 15496 Cycles – Requirements and test methods for cycle locks

Yet to be approved cycle standards from CEN TC333:

  • EN 15194 Cycles – Electrically power assisted cycles (EPAC bicycle)
  • EN 15532 Cycles – Terminology
  • 00333011 Cycles – Bicycles trailers – safety requirements and test methods

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^ Winters, M; Brauer, M; Setton, EM; Teschke, K (2010). “Built environment influences on healthy transportation choices: bicycling versus driving”. J Urban Health. 87 (6): 969–93. doi:10.1007/s11524-010-9509-6. PMC 3005092. PMID 21174189.

^ Shaheen, Susan; Guzman, Stacey; Zhang, Hua (2010). “Bikesharing in Europe, the Americas, and Asia”. Transportation Research Record. 2143: 159–67. doi:10.3141/2143-20. S2CID 40770008.

^ Shaheen, Stacey; Stacey Guzman (2011). “Worldwide Bikesharing”. Access Magazine. Archived from the original on 26 March 2012.

^ Shaheen, Susan; Zhang, Hua; Martin, Elliot; Guzman, Stacey (2011). “China’s Hangzhou Public Bicycle” (PDF). Transportation Research Record. 2247: 33–41. doi:10.3141/2247-05. S2CID 111120290.

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^ Broekaert, Joel & Kist, Reinier (12 February 2010). “So many bikes, so little space”. NRC Handelsblad. Archived from the original on 13 February 2010. Retrieved 13 February 2010.

^ Damien Newton (16 October 2008). “Metro Making Room for Bikes on Their Trains”. LA.StreetsBlog.Org. Retrieved 12 February 2010.

^ Bernstein, Andrea, “Techies on the cutting edge… of bike commuting”, Marketplace, 22 February 2012. “Bernstein reports from the Transportation Nation project at WNYC”. Retrieved 22 February 2012.

^ “In Almost Every European Country, Bikes Are Outselling New Cars”. NPR. 24 October 2013.

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^ Niklas Sieber (1998). “Appropriate Transportation and Rural Development in Makete District, Tanzania” (PDF). Journal of Transport Geography. 6 (1): 69–73. doi:10.1016/S0966-6923(97)00040-9. Retrieved 9 July 2011.

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a b c Willard, Frances Elizabeth (1895). A Wheel Within a Wheel: How I Learned to Ride the Bicycle, with Some Reflections by the Way. Woman’s Temperance Publishing Association. pp. 53, 56.

^ Roberts, Jacob (2017). “Women’s work”. Distillations. 3 (1): 6–11. Retrieved 22 March 2018.

^ Husted Harper, Ida (1898). The life and work of Susan B. Anthony: including public addresses, her own letters and many from her contemporaries during fifty years. A story of the evolution of the status of woman, Volume 2. 2. The Bowen-Merrill Company.

^ “Wilbur Wright Working in the Bicycle Shop”. World Digital Library. 1897. Retrieved 22 July 2013.

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a b c d Norcliffe 2001, p. 23.

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a b Norcliffe 2001, p. 106.

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a b c d Norcliffe 2001, p. 108.

^ Norcliffe 2001, pp. 142–47.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 145.

^ Babaian, Sharon. The Most Benevolent Machine: A Historical Assessment of Cycles in Canada (Ottawa: National Museum of Science and Technology, 1998), p. 97.

^ Babaian, p. 98.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 8.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 12.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 14.

^ Norcliffe 2001, pp. 147–48.

^ Norcliffe 2001, pp. 187–88.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 208.

^ Norcliffe 2001, pp. 243–45.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 121.

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a b Norcliffe 2001, p. 123.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 212.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 214.

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a b Norcliffe 2001, p. 131.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 30.

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a b Norcliffe 2001, p. 125.

^ Norcliffe 2001, pp. 125–26.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 238.

^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 128.

^ Norcliffe 2001, pp. 214–15.

^ “The Wrights’ bicycle shop”. 2007. Archived from the original on 25 January 2007. Retrieved 5 February 2007.

^ Francois Bougo (26 May 2010). “Beijing looks to revitalise bicycle culture”. Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 31 May 2010.

^ The Economist, 15 February 2003

^ “Italian bicycle sales ‘surpass those of cars'”. BBC News. 2 October 2012.

^ Illich, I. (1974). Energy and equity. New York, Harper & Row.

^ “Global cyclists say NO to carbon – opt for CDM” Archived 4 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The World Bank, 27 October 2015

^ “Peddling religion: Why secular academics fret about an “Islamic bicycle””. The Economist. 15 September 2012.

^ Michael Slackman (9 September 2007). “Molding the Ideal Islamic Citizen”. The New York Times.

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^ Saino, N; Galeotti, P; Sacchi, R; Møller, A (1997). “Song and immunological condition in male barn swallows (Hirundo rustica)”. Behavioral Ecology. 8 (94): 364–371. doi:10.1093/beheco/8.4.364.

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^ Jackson, Jerome; Tate Jr, James (1974). “An Analysis of Nest Box Use by Purple Martins, House Sparrows, and Starlings in Eastern North America”. The Wilson Bulletin. 86(4): 435–449. JSTOR 4160543.

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^ Society, National Geographic. “Ladybugs, Ladybug Pictures, Ladybug Facts – National Geographic”. Retrieved 4 October2016.

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^ Shumway & Parsons 2011, p. 207.

^ Shumway & Parsons 2011, p. 124.

^ Milsom & Rigby 2009, p. 62.

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^ Shumway & Parsons 2011, p. 59.

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^ Speiser, D. I.; Loew, E. R.; Johnsen, S. (2011). “Spectral sensitivity of the concave mirror eyes of scallops: potential influences of habitat, self-screening and longitudinal chromatic aberration”. Journal of Experimental Biology. 214 (3): 422–431. doi:10.1242/jeb.048108. PMID 21228201.

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^ Guerra, C.; Zenteno-Savín, T.; Maeda-Martínez, A. N.; Abele, D.; Philipp, E. E. R. (2013). “The effect of predator exposure and reproduction on oxidative stress parameters in the Catarina scallop Argopecten ventricosus”. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 165 (1): 89–96. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2013.02.006. PMID 23416890.

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a b Forester, A.J. (1979). “The association between the sponge Halichondria panicea (Pallas) and scallop Chlamys varia (L.): a commensal protective mutualism”. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 36 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1016/0022-0981(79)90096-0.

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a b “Coleoidea – Recent cephalopods”. Mikko’s Phylogeny Archive.

^ Harper, Douglas. “octopus”. Online Etymology Dictionary.

^ “Octopus”. Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 4 February2014.

^ ὀκτάπους, ὀκτώπους. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.

^ Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Shen, Yuan; Aiden, Aviva; Veres, Adrian; Gray, Matthew; Pickett, Joseph; Hoiberg, Dale; Clancy, Dan; Norvig, Peter; Orwant, Jon; Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin (2011). “Quantitative Analysis of Culture Using Millions of Digitized Books”. Science. 331 (6014): 176–182. Bibcode:2011Sci…331..176M. doi:10.1126/science.1199644. PMC 3279742. PMID 21163965. Relevant data at Google Ngram Viewer.

^ “Octopus”. Oxforddictionaries.com. 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.

^ Peters, Pam (2004). The Cambridge Guide to English Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-62181-X, p. 388.

^ Fowler, Henry Watson (1994). A Dictionary of Modern English Usage. p. 316. ISBN 9781853263187. In Latin plurals there are some traps for non-Latinists; the termination of the singular is no sure guide to that of the plural. Most Latin words in -us have plural in -i, but not all, & so zeal not according to knowledge issues in such oddities as…octopi…; as caution the following list may be useful:…octopus, -podes

^ “The Many Plurals of ‘Octopus'”. www.merriam-webster.com.

^ Butterfield, Jeremy (2015). Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191744532. The only correct plural in English is octopuses. The Greek original is ὀκτώπους, -ποδ- (which would lead to a pedantic English pl. form octopodes). The pl. form octopi, which is occasionally heard (mostly in jocular use), though based on modL octopus, is misconceived

^ Chambers 21st Century Dictionary Archived 24 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine (retrieved 19 October 2007 )

^ Stamper, Kory. Ask the editor: octopus. Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 30 April 2013. Retrieved 26 June2013.

^ “octopus”. Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)

^ Stevenson, Angus; Lindberg, Christine A., eds. (2010). New Oxford American Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-539288-3.

^ “Smithsonian National Zoological Park: Giant Pacific Octopus”. Nationalzoo.si.edu. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.

^ Cosgrove, J.A. 1987. Aspects of the Natural History of Octopus dofleini, the Giant Pacific Octopus. MSc Thesis. Department of Biology, University of Victoria (Canada), 101 pp.

^ Norman, M. 2000. Cephalopods: A World Guide. ConchBooks, Hackenheim. p. 214.

^ High, William L. (1976). “The giant Pacific octopus” (PDF). Marine Fisheries Review. 38 (9): 17–22.

^ O’Shea, S. (2004). “The giant octopus Haliphron atlanticus(Mollusca : Octopoda) in New Zealand waters”. New Zealand Journal of Zoology. 31 (1): 7–13. doi:10.1080/03014223.2004.9518353. S2CID 84954869.

^ O’Shea, S. (2002). Haliphron atlanticus – a giant gelatinous octopus” (PDF). Biodiversity Update. 5: 1.

^ Bradford, Alina (21 July 2016). “Octopus Facts”. Live Science. Retrieved 26 April 2017.

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a b c d e f g h i j k l m Ruppert, Edward E.; Fox, Richard S.; Barnes, Robert D. (2008). Invertebrate Zoology. Cengage Learning. pp. 363–364. ISBN 978-81-315-0104-7.

^ Wells (1978), pp. 11–12.

^ Ruth A., Byrne; Kuba, Michael J.; Meisel, Daniela V.; Griebel, Ulrike; Mather, Jennifer A. (August 2006). “Does Octopus vulgarishave preferred arms?”. Journal of Comparative Psychology. 120(3): 198–204. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.120.3.198. PMID 16893257.

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a b Mather, Anderson & Wood (2010), pp. 13–15.

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a b c d Courage (2013), pp. 40–41.

^ Semmens (2004). “Understanding octopus growth: patterns, variability and physiology”. Marine and Freshwater Research. 55 (4): 367. doi:10.1071/MF03155. S2CID 84208773.

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a b Carefoot, Thomas. “Octopuses and Relatives: Locomotion, Crawling”. A Snail’s Odyssey. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2017.

^ Zelman, I.; Titon, M.; Yekutieli, Y.; Hanassy, S.; Hochner, B.; Flash, T. (2013). “Kinematic decomposition and classification of octopus arm movements”. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience. 7: 60. doi:10.3389/fncom.2013.00060. PMC 3662989. PMID 23745113.

^ Tramacere, F.; Beccai, L.; Kuba, M.; Gozzi, A.; Bifone, A.; Mazzolai, B. (2013). “The morphology and adhesion mechanism of Octopus vulgaris suckers”. PLOS ONE. 8 (6): e65074. Bibcode:2013PLoSO…865074T. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065074. PMC 3672162. PMID 23750233.

^ Kier, W. M.; Smith, A. M. (2002). “The structure and adhesive mechanism of octopus suckers”. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 42 (6): 1146–1153. CiteSeerX doi:10.1093/icb/42.6.1146. PMID 21680399. S2CID 15997762.

^ Katz, Itamar; Shomrat, Tal; Nesher, Nir (1 January 2021). “Feel the light – sight independent negative phototactic response in octopus’ arms”. Journal of Experimental Biology. 224 (5). doi:10.1242/jeb.237529. ISSN 0022-0949. PMID 33536305.

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a b c d “Finned Deep-sea Octopuses, Grimpoteuthis spp”. MarineBio. Retrieved 14 May 2021.

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a b c d Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2004). Encyclopedia of the Aquatic World. Marshall Cavendish. p. 764. ISBN 978-0-7614-7424-1.

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a b c Wells (1978), pp. 31–35.

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a b c Courage (2013), pp. 42–43.

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a b Schmidt-Nielsen, Knut (1997). Animal Physiology: Adaptation and Environment. Cambridge University Press. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-521-57098-5.

^ Carefoot, Thomas. “Octopuses and Relatives: Locomotion, jet propulsion”. A Snail’s Odyssey. Archived from the original on 28 April 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2017.

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a b Wells (1978), pp. 24–26.

^ Wells, M. J.; Wells, J. (1995). “The control of ventilatory and cardiac responses to changes in ambient oxygen tension and oxygen demand in Octopus. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 198 (Pt 8): 1717–1727. doi:10.1242/jeb.198.8.1717. PMID 9319626.

^ Wells, J. (1996). “Cutaneous respiration in Octopus vulgaris. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 199 (Pt 11): 2477–2483. doi:10.1242/jeb.199.11.2477. PMID 9320405.

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a b Wells (1978), pp. 73–79.

^ Wells (1978), pp. 54–56.

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a b c d Albertin, Caroline B.; Simakov, Oleg; Mitros, Therese; Wang, Z. Yan; Pungor, Judit R.; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Brenner, Sydney; Ragsdale, Clifton W.; Rokhsar, Daniel S. (2015). “The octopus genome and the evolution of cephalopod neural and morphological novelties”. Nature. 524 (7564): 220–224. doi:10.1038/nature14668. ISSN 0028-0836.

^ Pilleri, Georg (1984). Investigations on Cetacea. 16–17. Hirnanatomisches Institut der Universität. p. 161. Retrieved 30 July 2018.

^ Hochner, B. (2012). “An Embodied View of Octopus Neurobiology”. Current Biology. 22 (20): R887–R892. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.09.001. PMID 23098601.

^ Yekutieli, Y.; Sagiv-Zohar, R.; Aharonov, R.; Engel, Y.; Hochner, B.; Flash, T. (2005). “Dynamic model of the octopus arm. I. Biomechanics of the octopus reaching movement”. Journal of Neurophysiology. 94 (2): 1443–1458. doi:10.1152/jn.00684.2004. PMID 15829594. S2CID 14711055.

^ Zullo, L.; Sumbre, G.; Agnisola, C.; Flash, T.; Hochner, B. (2009). “Nonsomatotopic organization of the higher motor centers in Octopus”. Current Biology. 19 (19): 1632–1636. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.07.067. PMID 19765993. S2CID 15852956.

^ Kawamura, G.; et al. (2001). “Color Discrimination Conditioning in Two Octopus Octopus aegina and O. vulgaris (PDF). Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi. 67 (1): 35–39. doi:10.2331/suisan.67.35. Archived from the original (PDF)on 14 July 2010.

^ Kingston, Alexandra C. N.; Kuzirian, Alan M.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Cronin, Thomas W. (2015). “Visual phototransduction components in cephalopod chromatophores suggest dermal photoreception”. Journal of Experimental Biology. 218 (10): 1596–1602. doi:10.1242/jeb.117945. ISSN 1477-9145.

^ Ramirez, M. Desmond; Oakley, Todd H. (2015). “Eye-independent, light-activated chromatophore expansion (LACE) and expression of phototransduction genes in the skin of Octopus bimaculoides”. Journal of Experimental Biology. 218 (10): 1513–1520. doi:10.1242/jeb.110908. ISSN 1477-9145.

^ Stubbs, Alexander L.; Stubbs, Christopher W. (2016). “Spectral discrimination in color blind animals via chromatic aberration and pupil shape”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113 (29): 8206–8211. doi:10.1073/pnas.1524578113. ISSN 0027-8424.

^ Hu, Marian Y.; Yan, Hong Young; Chung, Wen-Sung; Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Hwang, Pung-Pung (2009). “Acoustically evoked potentials in two cephalopods inferred using the auditory brainstem response (ABR) approach”. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 153(3): 278–283. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2009.02.040. ISSN 1095-6433.

^ Nesher, Nir; Levy, Guy; Grasso, Frank W.; Hochner, Binyamin (2014). “Self-Recognition Mechanism between Skin and Suckers Prevents Octopus Arms from Interfering with Each Other”. Current Biology. 24 (11): 1271–1275. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2014.04.024. ISSN 0960-9822.

^ Wells (1978), pp. 228–244.

^ Mather, Anderson & Wood (2010), p. 107.

^ Derby, C. D. (2014). “Cephalopod Ink: Production, Chemistry, Functions and Applications”. Marine Drugs. 12 (5): 2700–2730. doi:10.3390/md12052700. PMC 4052311. PMID 24824020.

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a b Mather, Anderson & Wood (2010), p. 147.

^ Wells, Martin J.; Wells, J. (1972). “Optic glands and the state of the testis in Octopus“. Marine Behaviour and Physiology. 1 (1–4): 71–83. doi:10.1080/10236247209386890.

^ Young, R. E.; Vecchione, M.; Mangold, K. M. (1999). “Cephalopoda Glossary”. Tree of Life web project.

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a b Carefoot, Thomas. “Octopuses and Relatives: Reproduction”. A Snail’s Odyssey. Archived from the originalon 22 April 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2017.

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a b c “Giant Pacific Octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) Care Manual” (PDF). AZA (Association of Zoos and Aquariums) Aquatic Invertebrate Taxonomic Advisory Group in association with AZA Animal Welfare Committee. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2016.

^ Scheel, David. “Giant Octopus: Fact Sheet”. Alaska Pacific University. Archived from the original on 15 November 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2017.

^ Forsythe, J. W.; Hanlon, R. T. (1980). “A closed marine culture system for rearing Octopus joubini and other large-egged benthic octopods”. Laboratory Animals. 14 (2): 137–142. doi:10.1258/002367780780942737. PMID 7431823. S2CID 19492476.

^ Simon, Matt (16 January 2015). “Absurd Creature of the Week: The Beautiful Octopus Whose Sex Is All About Dismemberment”. Wired: Science. Retrieved 20 May 2017.

^ Hooper, Rowan (21 December 2019). “Octopuses were thought to be solitary until a social species turned up”. New Scientist.

^ Anderson, Roland C.; Wood, James B.; Byrne, Ruth A. (2002). “Octopus Senescence: The Beginning of the End”. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. 5 (4): 275–283. CiteSeerX doi:10.1207/S15327604JAWS0504_02. PMID 16221078. S2CID 28355735.

^ Wodinsky, Jerome (1977). “Hormonal Inhibition of Feeding and Death in Octopus: Control by Optic Gland Secretion”. Science. 198 (4320): 948–951. Bibcode:1977Sci…198..948W. doi:10.1126/science.198.4320.948. PMID 17787564. S2CID 22649186.

^ Jamieson, A.J.; Vecchione, M. (2020). “First in situ observation of Cephalopoda at hadal depths (Octopoda: Opisthoteuthidae: Grimpoteuthis sp.)”. Marine Biology. 167 (82). doi:10.1007/s00227-020-03701-1.

^ Norman, Mark (16 January 2013). “Ask an expert: Are there any freshwater cephalopods?”. ABC Science. Retrieved 26 April2017.

^ Edmonds, Patricia (April 2016). “What’s Odd About That Octopus? It’s Mating Beak to Beak”. National Geographic.

^ Scheel, D.; et al. (2017). “A second site occupied by Octopus tetricus at high densities, with notes on their ecology and behavior”. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology. 50(4): 285–291. doi:10.1080/10236244.2017.1369851. S2CID 89738642.

^ Rodaniche, Arcadio F. (1991). “Notes on the behavior of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus, an undescribed species of the genus Octopus”. Bulletin of Marine Science. 49: 667.

^ Caldwell, Roy L.; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L. (2015). “Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus”. PLOS ONE. 10 (8): e0134152. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1034152C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134152. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4534201. PMID 26266543.

^ Goldman, Jason G. (24 May 2012). “How do octopuses navigate?”. Scientific American. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ Courage (2013), pp. 45–46.

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a b Carefoot, Thomas. “Octopuses and Relatives: Feeding, diets and growth”. A Snail’s Odyssey. Archived from the original on 8 May 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2017.

^ Sampaio, Eduardo; Seco, Martim Costa; Rosa, Rui; Gingins, Simon (18 December 2020). “Octopuses punch fishes during collaborative interspecific hunting events”. Ecology. Ecological Society of America/Wiley Publishing. 102 (3): e03266. doi:10.1002/ecy.3266. ISSN 0012-9658. PMID 33338268.

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a b Wassilieff, Maggy; O’Shea, Steve (2 March 2009). “Octopus and squid – Feeding and predation”. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand.

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a b Wells (1978), pp. 74–75.

^ Wodinsky, Jerome (1969). “Penetration of the Shell and Feeding on Gastropods by Octopus (PDF). American Zoologist. 9 (3): 997–1010. doi:10.1093/icb/9.3.997.

^ Carefoot, Thomas. “Octopuses and Relatives: Prey handling and drilling”. A Snail’s Odyssey. Archived from the original on 6 June 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2017.

^ Johnsen, S.; Balser, E. J.; Fisher, E. C.; Widder, E. A. (1999). “Bioluminescence in the deep-sea cirrate octopod Stauroteuthis syrtensis Verrill (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)” (PDF). The Biological Bulletin. 197 (1): 26–39. doi:10.2307/1542994. JSTOR 1542994. PMID 28296499. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2011.

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a b c Huffard, Christine L. (2006). “Locomotion by Abdopus aculeatus (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae): walking the line between primary and secondary defenses”. Journal of Experimental Biology. 209 (Pt 19): 3697–3707. doi:10.1242/jeb.02435. PMID 16985187.

^ Kassim, I.; Phee, L.; Ng, W. S.; Gong, F.; Dario, P.; Mosse, C. A. (2006). “Locomotion techniques for robotic colonoscopy”. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine. 25 (3): 40–56. doi:10.1109/MEMB.2006.1636351. PMID 16764431. S2CID 9124611.

^ Huffard, C. L.; Boneka, F.; Full, R. J. (2005). “Underwater Bipedal Locomotion by Octopuses in Disguise”. Science. 307(5717): 1927. doi:10.1126/science.1109616. PMID 15790846. S2CID 21030132.

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a b Wood, J. B; Anderson, R. C (2004). “Interspecific Evaluation of Octopus Escape Behavior” (PDF). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. 7 (2): 95–106. CiteSeerX doi:10.1207/s15327604jaws0702_2. PMID 15234886. S2CID 16639444. Retrieved 11 September 2015.

^ Mather, Anderson & Wood (2010), p. 183.

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a b Finn, J. K.; Tregenza, T.; Norman, M. D. (2009). “Defensive tool use in a coconut-carrying octopus”. Current Biology. 19 (23): R1069–70. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.10.052. PMID 20064403. S2CID 26835945.

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a b Stewart, Doug (1997). “Armed but not dangerous: Is the octopus really the invertebrate intellect of the sea”. National Wildlife. 35 (2).

^ “Octopus intelligence: Jar opening”. BBC News. 25 February 2003. Retrieved 4 February 2014.

^ Mather, J. A.; Anderson, R. C. (1998). Wood, J. B. (ed.). “What behavior can we expect of octopuses?”. The Cephalopod Page.

^ Lee, Henry (1875). “V: The octopus out of water”. Aquarium Notes – The Octopus; or, the “devil-fish” of fiction and of fact. London: Chapman and Hall. pp. 38–39. OCLC 1544491. Retrieved 11 September 2015. The marauding rascal had occasionally issued from the water in his tank, and clambered up the rocks, and over the wall into the next one; there he had helped himself to a young lump-fish, and, having devoured it, returned demurely to his own quarters by the same route, with well-filled stomach and contented mind.

^ Ainge Roy, Eleanor (14 April 2016). “The great escape: Inky the octopus legs it to freedom from aquarium”. The Guardian (Australia).

^ Meyers, Nadia. “Tales from the Cryptic: The Common Atlantic Octopus”. Southeastern Regional Taxonomic Centre. Retrieved 27 July 2006.

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a b c Mather, Anderson & Wood (2010), pp. 90–97.

^ Hanlon, R. T.; Messenger, J. B. (2018). Cephalopod Behaviour(2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 110–111. ISBN 978-0521723701.

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a b Carefoot, Thomas. “Octopuses and Relatives: Predators and Defenses”. A Snail’s Odyssey. Archived from the original on 21 April 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2017.

^ Mäthger, L. M.; Bell, G. R.; Kuzirian, A. M.; Allen, J. J.; Hanlon, R. T. (2012). “How does the blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata) flash its blue rings?”. Journal of Experimental Biology. 215 (21): 3752–3757. doi:10.1242/jeb.076869. PMID 23053367.

^ Wigton, Rachel; Wood, James B. “Grass octopus (Octopus macropus)”. Marine Invertebrates of Bermuda. Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences. Archived from the original on 19 January 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2018.

^ Hanlon, R. T.; Messenger, J. B. (1998). Cephalopod Behaviour(1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 80–81, 111. ISBN 978-0-521-64583-6.

^ Caldwell, R. L. (2005). “An Observation of Inking Behavior Protecting Adult Octopus bocki from Predation by Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) Hatchlings” (PDF). Pacific Science. 59 (1): 69–72. doi:10.1353/psc.2005.0004. hdl:10125/24161. S2CID 54223984.

^ Harmon, Katherine (27 August 2013). “Even Severed Octopus Arms Have Smart Moves”. Octopus Chronicles. Scientific American.

^ Mather, Anderson & Wood (2010), p. 85.

^ Norman, M. D.; Finn, J.; Tregenza, T. (2001). “Dynamic mimicry in an Indo-Malayan octopus” (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society. 268 (1478): 1755–8. doi:10.1098/rspb.2001.1708. PMC 1088805. PMID 11522192. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 February 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2008.

^ Norman, M. D. (2005). “The ‘Mimic Octopus’ (Thaumoctopus mimicus n. gen. et sp.), a new octopus from the tropical Indo-West Pacific (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae)”. Molluscan Research. 25(2): 57–70.

^ Pascal, Santiago; Gestal, Camino; Estevez, J.; Arias, Christian Andrés (1996). “Parasites in commercially-exploited cephalopods (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) in Spain: An updated perspective”. Aquaculture. 142 (1–2): 1–10. doi:10.1016/0044-8486(96)01254-9.

^ Furuya, Hidetaka; Tsuneki, Kazuhiko (2003). “Biology of Dicyemid Mesozoans”. Zoological Science. 20 (5): 519–532. doi:10.2108/zsj.20.519. PMID 12777824. S2CID 29839345.

^ Castellanos-Martínez, Sheila; Gestal, Camino (2013). “Pathogens and immune response of cephalopods”. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 447: 14–22. doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2013.02.007.

^ Farto, R.; Armada, S. P.; Montes, M.; Guisande, J. A.; Pérez, M. J.; Nieto, T. P. (2003). “Vibrio lentus associated with diseased wild octopus (Octopus vulgaris)”. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 83(2): 149–156. doi:10.1016/S0022-2011(03)00067-3. PMID 12788284.

^ Gofas, S. (2009). “Octopoda”. WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 5 May 2017.

^ Mather, Anderson & Wood (2010), p. 145.

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a b Sanchez, Gustavo; Setiamarga, Davin H. E.; Tuanapaya, Surangkana; Tongtherm, Kittichai; Winkelmann, Inger E.; Schmidbaur, Hannah; Umino, Tetsuya; Albertin, Caroline; Allcock, Louise; Perales-Raya, Catalina; Gleadall, Ian; Strugnell, Jan M.; Simakov, Oleg; Nabhitabhata, Jaruwat (2018). “Genus-level phylogeny of cephalopods using molecular markers: current status and problematic areas”. PeerJ. 6: e4331. doi:10.7717/peerj.4331. PMC 5813590. PMID 29456885.

^ Fuchs, D.; Ifrim, C.; Stinnesbeck, W. (2008). “A newPalaeoctopus (Cephalopoda: Coleoidea) from the Late Cretaceous of Vallecillo, north-eastern Mexico, and implications for the evolution of Octopoda”. Palaeontology. 51 (5): 1129–1139. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2008.00797.x.

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a b c Fuchs, Dirk; Iba, Yasuhiro; Heyng, Alexander; Iijima, Masaya; Klug, Christian; Larson, Neal L.; Schweigert, Günter; Brayard, Arnaud (2019). “The Muensterelloidea: phylogeny and character evolution of Mesozoic stem octopods”. Papers in Palaeontology. 6 (1): 31–92. doi:10.1002/spp2.1254. ISSN 2056-2802.

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a b c Kröger, Björn; Vinther, Jakob; Fuchs, Dirk (2011). “Cephalopod origin and evolution: A congruent picture emerging from fossils, development and molecules”. BioEssays. 33 (8): 602–613. doi:10.1002/bies.201100001. ISSN 0265-9247.

^ Fuchs, Dirk; Schweigert, Günter (2018). “First Middle–Late Jurassic gladius vestiges provide new evidence on the detailed origin of incirrate and cirrate octopuses (Coleoidea)”. PalZ. 92 (2): 203–217. doi:10.1007/s12542-017-0399-8. ISSN 0031-0220. S2CID 135245479.

^ Fuchs, Dirk; Iba, Yasuhiro; Heyng, Alexander; Iijima, Masaya; Klug, Christian; Larson, Neal L.; Schweigert, Günter (2020). Brayard, Arnaud (ed.). “The Muensterelloidea: phylogeny and character evolution of Mesozoic stem octopods”. Papers in Palaeontology. 6 (1): 31–92. doi:10.1002/spp2.1254. ISSN 2056-2802.

^ “A Broad Brush History of the Cephalopoda”. The Cephalopod Group. Retrieved 27 March 2017.

^ Young, R. E.; Vecchione, M.; Mangold, K. M. (1999). “Cephalopoda Glossary”. Tree of Life web project. Retrieved 30 May 2017.

^ Seibel, B. Vampyroteuthis infernalis, Deep-sea Vampire squid”. The Cephalopod Page. Retrieved 31 May 2017.

^ Ibáñez, Christian M.; Fenwick, Mark; Ritchie, Peter A.; Carrasco, Sergio A.; Pardo-Gandarillas, M. Cecilia (2020). “Systematics and Phylogenetic Relationships of New Zealand Benthic Octopuses (Cephalopoda: Octopodoidea)”. Frontiers in Marine Science. 7. doi:10.3389/fmars.2020.00182. ISSN 2296-7745.

^ Courage (2013), pp. 46–49.

^ Liscovitch-Brauer, N.; Alon, S.; Porath, H. T.; Elstein, B.; Unger, R.; Ziv, T.; Admon, A.; Levanon, E. Y.; Rosenthal, J. J. C.; Eisenberg, E. (2017). “Trade-off between transcriptome plasticity and genome evolution in cephalopods”. Cell. 169 (2): 191–202. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2017.03.025. PMC 5499236. PMID 28388405.

^ Hogan, C. Michael (22 December 2007). “Knossos fieldnotes”. The Modern Antiquarian.

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Lotus Flower

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 Pulok K. Mukherjee; Debajyoti Mukherjee; Amal K. Maji; S. Rai; Michael Heinrich (2010). “The sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)– phytochemical and therapeutic profile”. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 61 (4): 407–422. doi:10.1211/jpp.61.04.0001. PMID 19298686. S2CID 85342386.

 Yi Zhang; Xu Lu; Shaoxiao Zeng; Xuhui Huang; Zebin Guo; Yafeng Zheng; Yuting Tian; Baodong Zheng (2015). “Nutritional composition, physiological functions and processing of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seeds: a review”. Phytochem Rev. 14 (3): 321–334. doi:10.1007/s11101-015-9401-9. S2CID 16527010.

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 Shen-Miller, J. (2002). “Long-living lotus: germination and soil gamma-irradiation of centuries-old fruits, and cultivation, growth, and phenotypic abnormalities of offspring”. American Journal of Botany. 89 (2): 236–247. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.2.236. PMID 21669732. Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) has been cultivated as a crop in Asia for thousands of years. An ≈1300-yr-old lotus fruit, recovered from an originally cultivated but now dry lakebed in northeastern China, is the oldest germinated and directly 14C-dated fruit known. In 1996, we traveled to the dry lake at Xipaozi Village, China, the source of the old viable fruits.

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 Thongchai Kanabkaew; Udomphon Puetpaiboon (2004). “Aquatic plants for domestic wastewater Treatment: Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) and Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) systems” (PDF). Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 26.

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 Ding, Hui; Shi, Jinghong; Wang, Ying; Guo, Jia; Zhao, Juhui; Dong, Lei (2011). “Neferine inhibits cultured hepatic stellate cell activation and facilitates apoptosis: A possible molecular mechanism”. European Journal of Pharmacology. 650 (1): 163–169. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.10.025. PMID 20969858.

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Mushroom Fun Facts | Mobile Cuisine (mobile-cuisine.com)

  1. Fun with funghi: Garnish your meals with mushrooms. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Updated January 17, 2019.
  2. Mushrooms, raw. FoodData Central. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Published April 1, 2019.
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